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  • Aspartame has been Renamed and is Now Being Marketed as a Natural Sweetener

    [url]http://blogs.healthfreedomalliance.org/blog/2010/02/15/aspartame-has-been-renamed-and-is-now-being-marketed-as-a-natural-sweetener/[/url]

    "Artificial sweeteners especially aspartame has gotten a bad rap over the years, most likely due to studies showing they cause cancer. But not to worry Ajinomoto the company that makes Aspartame has changed the name to AminoSweet. It has the same toxic ingredients but a nice new sounding name.

    And if you or your child happens to be allergic to Aspartame, well don’t take it personally it’s just business. "

    -S
    The Book Has Arrived!
    The Book Has Arrived!

    Life's journey is not to arrive at the grave safely in a pristine, well-preserved body, but rather to skid in sideways, used up, worn out, and shouting, "Holy #$&^%$^... What a ride!!!"


    [URL="http://www.truenutrition.com"]www.TrueNutrition.com[/URL]

    2012 NPC Master's Nationals HW 5th. Mid-USA HW & Overall
    2010 NPC Jr. USA HW 4th, Pacific USA Heavy 2nd
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  • #2
    Some of the worst crap you can put in your body unless of course you're trying to destroy brain cells.

    Should never have been allowed on the market in the first place

    Comment


    • #3
      I'm afraid I don't agree. All the legitimate studies have shown that aspartame is not as unhealthy as the scare mongers make it out to be. Aspartame is broken down by the digestive process into aspartic acid, phenylalanine and methanol. What's the concern is methanol, which is further hydrolized into formaldehyde, which at high doses is toxic. However, what's found in aspartame is extremely low, typically 10-20mg. A serving of tomato juice contains 150-200mg. Citrus fruits and juices also contain high methanol producing compounds. Alcohol contains even more than tomato juice. What's found in aspartame is easily disposed of by the body, as the body routinely has to dispose of from other food sources anyway.

      There was as report released in 1996 stating that since aspartame was released, the incidences of brain tumors had increased between 1975 and 1996. An analysis done by NCI after this was published found that the increase actually started 8 years before aspartame was released and no link to aspartame was found.

      To date, there have been no clear evidence linking aspartame to cancer, CNS disorders, or the myriad other health factors these "studies" claim to find. If you ask me, people should be much more concerned about their high-GI carb, processed diets, smoking, heavy drinking and sedentary lifestyles than a sweetener that has been shown not to be the health menace they claim.

      [url]http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/factsheet/Risk/artificial-sweeteners[/url]
      [url]http://www.nzfsa.govt.nz/publications/media-releases/2007/aspartame-and-formaldehyde.htm[/url]
      [url]http://www.aspartame.net/rumors/Aspartame_and_the_Internet.asp[/url]
      [url]http://www.healthline.com/blogs/diet_nutrition/2007/09/aspartame-safety.html[/url]
      [url]http://www.snopes.com/medical/toxins/aspartame.asp[/url]

      One exception to this is anyone who has phenylketonuria (PKU) in which the body isn't able to easily control phenylalanine levels.
      Last edited by rezistor; 02-19-2010, 03:39 AM.

      Comment


      • #4
        I'll respond to the above later today

        Comment


        • #5
          I do want to add that tho' I don't think aspartame is as unhealthy as some of those claims, it is processed so I can't say it's really healthy, either. For me, until I see an actual legitimate study that links aspartame to brain cancer or some other major health issue, I'm not inclined to worry too much about it.

          Shoot, they've shown that grilling food creates carcinogenic compounds. We can't win!
          Last edited by rezistor; 02-19-2010, 04:26 AM.

          Comment


          • #6
            If you only take your poison in small sub lethal doses does it make it a healthy alternative?

            To intentionally add poisons to my diet just doesn't seem like a brilliant idea unless there is some kind of magical positive benefit. Call me crazy if you will but I can't help but see this as a bad thing. That a food and drug administration that is mandated to ensure that food additives are not being added to the food supply that are in fact poisons has allowed aspartame says a lot about the food industry and the fda.

            Comment


            • #7
              I decided to choose brain cancer over Type II diabetes a long time ago, so aspartame is my friend.
              Ph.D., Theoretical Physics '16
              kind of a douche

              Comment


              • #8
                Toxicology. 1988 Jun;50(1):1-26.
                Aspartame: review of recent experimental and observational data.

                Janssen PJ, van der Heijden CA.

                National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Hygiene, Bilthoven, The Netherlands.

                In this report the neurotoxicity of aspartame and its constituent amino acids aspartic acid and phenylalanine is reviewed. The adverse reactions ascribed to the consumption of aspartame-containing products, as reported in the U.S.A., are discussed and placed in perspective with the results of recent behavioural studies in humans and animals. The issue of common intake levels associated with proposed uses of aspartame is addressed. In brief, the following conclusions can be drawn: When aspartame is consumed at levels within the ADI-limit of 40 mg/kg body wt, there is no significant risk for an aspartate-induced neurotoxic effect in the brain. When aspartame is consumed at levels within the ADI-limit by normal subjects or persons heterozygous for phenylketonuria (PKU) the resultant plasma phenylalanine concentrations are practically always within the normal postprandial range; elevation to plasma concentrations commonly associated with adverse effects has not been observed. Persons suffering from phenylketonuria (PKU-homozygotes) on a phenylalanine-restricted diet should avoid consumption of aspartame. PKU-homozygotes on the (less strict) phenylalanine-liberalized diet should be made aware of the phenylalanine content of aspartame. In the available behavioural studies in humans with acute dosing, no adverse effects were observed. Long-term studies on behaviour and cognitive function in (sensitive) humans are lacking. Analyses of adverse reaction reports made by consumers in the U.S.A. have not yielded a specific constellation of symptoms clearly related to aspartame that would suggest a widespread public health hazard associated with aspartame use. Focussed clinical studies are now being carried out in the U.S.A.; the results should provide additional evidence concerning the interpretation of the reports on adverse reactions ascribed to aspartame. In the regulation of admitted uses for aspartame the possibility of intake levels exceeding the ADI-limit in some groups of consumers should be a point of attention.

                PMID: 3291200 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


                -----------------------

                Ann Allergy. 1988 Dec;61(6 Pt 2):63-9.
                Aspartame intolerance.

                Garriga MM, Metcalfe DD.

                Mast Cell Physiology Section, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, Maryland.

                Aspartame is a food additive marketed under the brand name Nutrasweet. Aspartame is a white, odorless, crystalline powder and consists of two amino acids, L-aspartic acid and L-phenylalanine. It is 180 times as sweet as sugar. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) first allowed its use in dry foods in July 1981 and then approved its use in carbonated beverages in July 1983. It has subsequently been approved for use in a number of materials including multivitamins, fruit juices, stick-type confections, breath mints, and iced tea. The FDA requires the statement "phenylketonurics: contains phenylalanine" on labels of food products containing aspartame because individuals with phenylketonuria (PKU) must restrict their intake of phenylalanine. Aspartame is judged to be free of long-term cancer risks. Aspartame is not stable under certain conditions including baking and cooking, and prolonged exposure to acid conditions. In such situations it loses its sweetness. Products formed from aspartame include its component amino acids (phenylalanine and aspartic acid), methanol, and diketopiperazine (DKP). Animal studies show DKP to be nontoxic. Methanol occurs in small amounts and does not exceed that formed during consumption of many foods including fresh fruits and vegetables. FDA's Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN) monitors aspartame's safety in part through reports of adverse reactions. After aspartame was approved for use in carbonated beverages, the FDA received an increased number of reports concerning adverse reactions related to aspartame. The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) reviewed these reports, which included complaints of neurologic, gastrointestinal, andallergic reactions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

                PMID: 3061324 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]



                ------------------------------------------------

                Crit Rev Toxicol. 2007;37(8):629-727.
                Aspartame: a safety evaluation based on current use levels, regulations, and toxicological and epidemiological studies.

                Magnuson BA, Burdock GA, Doull J, Kroes RM, Marsh GM, Pariza MW, Spencer PS, Waddell WJ, Walker R, Williams GM.

                Burdock Group, Washington, DC, USA. [email]bmagnuso@umd.edu[/email]

                [url]http://www.burdockgroup.com/index.php/services.html[/url]

                Aspartame is a methyl ester of a dipeptide used as a synthetic nonnutritive sweetener in over 90 countries worldwide in over 6000 products. The purpose of this investigation was to review the scientific literature on the absorption and metabolism, the current consumption levels worldwide, the toxicology, and recent epidemiological studies on aspartame. Current use levels of aspartame, even by high users in special subgroups, remains well below the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and European Food Safety Authority established acceptable daily intake levels of 50 and 40 mg/kg bw/day, respectively. Consumption of large doses of aspartame in a single bolus dose will have an effect on some biochemical parameters, including plasma amino acid levels and brain neurotransmitter levels. The rise in plasma levels of phenylalanine and aspartic acid following administration of aspartame at doses less than or equal to 50 mg/kg bw do not exceed those observed postprandially. Acute, subacute and chronic toxicity studies with aspartame, and its decomposition products, conducted in mice, rats, hamsters and dogs have consistently found no adverse effect of aspartame with doses up to at least 4000 mg/kg bw/day. Critical review of all carcinogenicity studies conducted on aspartame found no credible evidence that aspartame is carcinogenic. The data from the extensive investigations into the possibility of neurotoxic effects of aspartame, in general, do not support the hypothesis that aspartame in the human diet will affect nervous system function, learning or behavior. Epidemiological studies on aspartame include several case-control studies and one well-conducted prospective epidemiological study with a large cohort, in which the consumption of aspartame was measured. The studies provide no evidence to support an association between aspartame and cancer in any tissue. The weight of existing evidence is that aspartame is safe at current levels of consumption as a nonnutritive sweetener.

                PMID: 17828671 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

                [url]http://www.burdockgroup.com/index.php/services.html[/url]

                -------------------------


                Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2002 Apr;35(2 Pt 2):S1-93.
                Aspartame: review of safety.

                Butchko HH, Stargel WW, Comer CP, Mayhew DA, Benninger C, Blackburn GL, de Sonneville LM, Geha RS, Hertelendy Z, Koestner A, Leon AS, Liepa GU, McMartin KE, Mendenhall CL, Munro IC, Novotny EJ, Renwick AG, Schiffman SS, Schomer DL, Shaywitz BA, Spiers PA, Tephly TR, Thomas JA, Trefz FK.

                Medical and Scientific Affairs, The NutraSweet Company, Mt Prospect, Illinois 60056, USA. [email]harriett.h.butchko@nutrasweet.com[/email]

                Over 20 years have elapsed since aspartame was approved by regulatory agencies as a sweetener and flavor enhancer. The safety of aspartame and its metabolic constituents was established through extensive toxicology studies in laboratory animals, using much greater doses than people could possibly consume. Its safety was further confirmed through studies in several human subpopulations, including healthy infants, children, adolescents, and adults; obese individuals; diabetics; lactating women; and individuals heterozygous (PKUH) for the genetic disease phenylketonuria (PKU) who have a decreased ability to metabolize the essential amino acid, phenylalanine. Several scientific issues continued to be raised after approval, largely as a concern for theoretical toxicity from its metabolic components--the amino acids, aspartate and phenylalanine, and methanol--even though dietary exposure to these components is much greater than from aspartame. Nonetheless, additional research, including evaluations of possible associations between aspartame and headaches, seizures, behavior, cognition, and mood as well as allergic-type reactions and use by potentially sensitive subpopulations, has continued after approval. These findings are reviewed here. The safety testing of aspartame has gone well beyond that required to evaluate the safety of a food additive. When all the research on aspartame, including evaluations in both the premarketing and postmarketing periods, is examined as a whole, it is clear that aspartame is safe, and there are no unresolved questions regarding its safety under conditions of intended use.

                PMID: 12180494 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
                ----------------

                Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1986 Mar 30;83(1):79-85.
                Neurobiochemical alterations induced by the artificial sweetener aspartame (NutraSweet).

                Coulombe RA Jr, Sharma RP.

                The dipeptide aspartame (NutraSweet) is a newly approved and widely used artificial sweetener in foods and beverages. Consumption of aspartame (ASM) has been reported to be responsible for neurologic and behavioral disturbances in sensitive individuals. Unfasted male CD-1 mice were dosed orally with 13, 130, or 650 mg/kg ASM in corn oil, while control animals received corn oil alone. Three hours after dosing, the animals were killed, and the concentrations of the catecholamines norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA), catecholamine metabolites 3-methoxy-4-hydroxymandelic acid (VMA), homovanillic acid (HVA), and dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), the indoleamine serotonin (5-HT), and its metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) were determined by electrochemical high-performance liquid chromatography in six brain regions. ASM exerted its primary effect on adrenergic neurotransmitters in various brain regions. In the hypothalamus, the region richest in NE, increases in NE concentrations of 12, 49, and 47% were found in the low, medium, and high dose groups, respectively, relative to control. Significant increases of NE in the medulla oblongata and corpus striatum were also observed. Increases of the catecholamine DA and catecholamine metabolites VMA, HVA, and DOPAC were seen in various regions. The indoleamine serotonin and its metabolite 5-HIAA were unaffected by ASM treatment. These findings are consistent with ASM-induced increases in the brain catecholamine precursor amino acids phenylalanine and tyrosine, as reported earlier. Such observed alterations in brain neurotransmitter concentrations may be responsible for the reported clinical and behavioral effects associated with ASM ingestion.

                PMID: 2420032 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

                ----------------------

                http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17684524?ordinalpos=1&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez. Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_SingleItemSupl.P ubmed_Discovery_RA&linkpos=4&log$=relatedreviews&l ogdbfrom=pubmed

                Eur J Clin Nutr. 2008 Apr;62(4):451-62. Epub 2007 Aug 8.
                Direct and indirect cellular effects of aspartame on the brain.

                Humphries P, Pretorius E, Naudé H.

                Department of Anatomy, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, Gauteng, South Africa.

                Comment in:

                * Eur J Clin Nutr. 2009 May;63(5):698-9; author reply 695-8.
                * Eur J Clin Nutr. 2009 Aug;63(8):1044.

                The use of the artificial sweetener, aspartame, has long been contemplated and studied by various researchers, and people are concerned about its negative effects. Aspartame is composed of phenylalanine (50%), aspartic acid (40%) and methanol (10%). Phenylalanine plays an important role in neurotransmitter regulation, whereas aspartic acid is also thought to play a role as an excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. Glutamate, asparagines and glutamine are formed from their precursor, aspartic acid. Methanol, which forms 10% of the broken down product, is converted in the body to formate, which can either be excreted or can give rise to formaldehyde, diketopiperazine (a carcinogen) and a number of other highly toxic derivatives. Previously, it has been reported that consumption of aspartame could cause neurological and behavioural disturbances in sensitive individuals. Headaches, insomnia and seizures are also some of the neurological effects that have been encountered, and these may be accredited to changes in regional brain concentrations of catecholamines, which include norepinephrine, epinephrine and dopamine. The aim of this study was to discuss the direct and indirect cellular effects of aspartame on the brain, and we propose that excessive aspartame ingestion might be involved in the pathogenesis of certain mental disorders (DSM-IV-TR 2000) and also in compromised learning and emotional functioning.

                ------------

                J Nutr. 1983 Aug;113(8):1600-6.
                Blood methanol concentrations in one-year-old infants administered graded doses of aspartame.

                Stegink LD, Brummel MC, Filer LJ Jr, Baker GL.

                Blood methanol concentrations were measured in 24 1-year-old infants administered aspartame, a dipeptide methyl ester sweetener. The doses studied included a dose projected to be the 99th percentile of daily ingestion for adults (34 mg/kg body weight), a very high use dose (50 mg/kg body weight) and a dose considered to be in the abuse range (100 mg/kg body weight). Blood methanol values in infants were compared to values observed previously in adults administered equivalent doses of aspartame. Methanol concentrations were below the level of detection (0.35 mg/dl) in the blood of 10 infants administered aspartame at 34 mg/kg body weight, but were significantly elevated (P less than or equal to 0.05) after ingestion of aspartame at 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight. At the latter doses, mean peak blood methanol concentrations and the area under the blood methanol concentration-time curve increased in proportion to dose. Mean (+/- SEM) peak blood methanol concentration was 0.30 +/- 0.10 mg/100 ml at a 50 mg/kg body weight aspartame dose (n = 6) and 1.02 +/- 0.28 mg/ml at the 100 mg/kg body weight dose (n = 8). Blood methanol values in infants were similar to those observed in normal adults.

                PMID: 6875695 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]



                [url]http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19896282?itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed _ResultsPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSum&ordinalpos=1[/url]

                Med Hypotheses. 2010 Mar;74(3):493-496. Epub 2009 Nov 5.
                Methanol: A chemical Trojan horse as the root of the inscrutable U.

                Monte WC.

                Arizona State University (retired), 470 South Rainbow Drive, Page, Arizona 86040, United States.

                Until 200years ago, methanol was an extremely rare component of the human diet and is still rarely consumed in contemporary hunter and gatherer cultures. With the invention of canning in the 1800s, canned and bottled fruits and vegetables, whose methanol content greatly exceeds that of their fresh counterparts, became far more prevalent. The recent dietary introduction of aspartame, an artificial sweetener 11% methanol by weight, has also greatly increased methanol consumption. Moreover, methanol is a major component of cigarette smoke, known to be a causative agent of many diseases of civilization (DOC). Conversion to formaldehyde in organs other than the liver is the principal means by which methanol may cause disease. The known sites of class I alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH I), the only human enzyme capable of metabolizing methanol to formaldehyde, correspond to the sites of origin for many DOC. Variability in sensitivity to exogenous methanol consumption may be accounted for in part by the presence of aldehyde dehydrogenase sufficient to reduce the toxic effect of formaldehyde production in tissue through its conversion to the much less toxic formic acid. The consumption of small amounts of ethanol, which acts as a competitive inhibitor of methanol's conversion to formaldehyde by ADH I, may afford some individuals protection from DOC. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

                PMID: 19896282 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

                -------------
                The Book Has Arrived!
                The Book Has Arrived!

                Life's journey is not to arrive at the grave safely in a pristine, well-preserved body, but rather to skid in sideways, used up, worn out, and shouting, "Holy #$&^%$^... What a ride!!!"


                [URL="http://www.truenutrition.com"]www.TrueNutrition.com[/URL]

                2012 NPC Master's Nationals HW 5th. Mid-USA HW & Overall
                2010 NPC Jr. USA HW 4th, Pacific USA Heavy 2nd
                2009 NPC Mr. Arizona HW & Overall, Jr. Nationals HW 16th, Smoked at USA's

                Comment


                • #9
                  Tiramisu, I don't agree that it's poison, that's where we differ. Many foods we ingest every day have formaldehyde as a by-product, some in much higher doses than what aspartame may induce. I don't approach it as ,"Only a little poison isn't going to hurt me too much." but rather it's not poison, until the studies to date are reversed and it's more or less proven to be poison.

                  I have yet to hear of ONE case where someone's brain tumor or seizure is due to aspartame. Show me one incident, anywhere.

                  Homon, I really like your style - post the (legitimate) studies and let us make our own damn minds up about it! I respect anyone who can back up their argument with hard evidence. And thank you for the resources (gotta love pubmed!). Great reads, tho' by my interpretation at best some of them are inconclusive, and some of them support aspartame.

                  Archaeopteryx, I'm with you on this one! haha

                  Comment


                  • #10
                    Say what you want about aspartame, but as a scientist I'd like to say that website has got to be one of the most biased, unscientific, untrustworthy sites I've ever encountered. NOWHERE in their articles do they offer any proof for any of their claims, which are spurious at best. I'm all for protecting people's health, but these people are just as bad as the morons who claim climate change is a myth.
                    Ph.D., Theoretical Physics '16
                    kind of a douche

                    Comment


                    • #11
                      Originally posted by Archaeopteryx lithographica View Post
                      I decided to choose brain cancer over Type II diabetes a long time ago, so aspartame is my friend.
                      dude sugar does not cause diabetes...google it bro. Several studies have shown that if you dont have diabetes, eating sugar will not make u get it. BUT if you have type one, obviously sugar needs to be watched.

                      Comment


                      • #12
                        Originally posted by rezistor View Post
                        I have yet to hear of ONE case where someone's brain tumor or seizure is due to aspartame. Show me one incident, anywhere.
                        Same here, and I hear about this stuff from one cousin of mine ALL the time. I ask for evidence and none ever comes.

                        Originally posted by Archaeopteryx lithographica View Post
                        Say what you want about aspartame, but as a scientist I'd like to say that website has got to be one of the most biased, unscientific, untrustworthy sites I've ever encountered. NOWHERE in their articles do they offer any proof for any of their claims, which are spurious at best. I'm all for protecting people's health, but these people are just as bad as the morons who claim climate change is a myth.
                        I agree. The original website posted is about as unscientific as they get.

                        Something needs to be done to teach critical thinking in the US, too many credulous people.
                        My daughter needs all the protein she can get...use discount code NPP443 and get 5% (10% for 16lbs or more) discount at [URL="www.trueprotein.com"]www.trueprotein.com[/URL]

                        Comment


                        • #13
                          good studies Scott, but why didn't you bold the conclusions that state the safety of aspartame
                          CEO of Morphogen Nutrition
                          MorphogenNutrition.com



                          2012 NPC Natural Ohio
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                          Comment


                          • #14
                            the last 20-30 years has seen a rise in neurological disorders that happens to coincide with the introduction of aspartame into the food supply

                            I wonder if anything else might've happened in that 20-30 year time span besides aspartame...increased pollution, automobile usage, artificial dye in food, increased use of plastic food wares, new medicines, increased medicine use, increased consumption of processed food, decreased physical activity, increase dependency on technology, more people sitting too close to the computer, etc.

                            I wonder why all of these things aren't also part of the witch hunt

                            the population is also higher now that it was 30 years ago. By default you'd think there would be higher rates of cancer and other diseases just based on a % of the total population

                            I just don't see how 0.025g of aspartic acid or 0.025g phenylalanine or however little actual amount of aspartame is in each packet can have that much of an impact on anything. I eat more of those two amino acids on my protein shake with breakfast than I do eating 50 packets of Equal a day

                            since aspartame is 200 times sweater than sugar, to equal the sweetness I'd need in a 2L of diet pop (which would have about 200g sugar), I'd need a whopping 1g aspartame

                            how much methanol do you realistically get from 1g of aspartame compared to eating 3-4 pieces of fruit a day or a big salad or two
                            CEO of Morphogen Nutrition
                            MorphogenNutrition.com



                            2012 NPC Natural Ohio
                            2010 NGA Pro Universe
                            2010 NPC Monster Mash
                            2010 ONBF Natural Fall Classic
                            2010 NPC Natural Pennsylvania
                            2010 NPC Natural Northern USA
                            2010 INBF Cardinal Classic
                            2008 NPC Natural Northern USA
                            2008 NPC Ohio State
                            2004 NPC Natural Northern USA

                            Comment


                            • #15
                              [url]http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/press/111605.html[/url]

                              New Study Suggests Artificial Sweetener Causes Cancer in Rats at Levels Currently Approved for Humans
                              Report in Environmental Health Perspectives calls for reevaluation of acceptable limits of aspartame consumption


                              [Research Triangle Park, NC] ] A statistically significant increase in the incidence of malignant tumors, lymphomas and leukemias in rats exposed to varying doses of aspartame appears to link the artificial sweetener to a high carcinogenicity rate, according to a study accepted for publication today by the peer-reviewed journal Environmental Health Perspectives (EHP). The authors of the study, the first to demonstrate multipotential carcinogenic effects of aspartame administered to rats in feed, called for an "urgent reevaluation" of the current guidelines for the use and consumption of this compound.

                              "Our study has shown that aspartame is a multipotential carcinogenic compound whose carcinogenic effects are also evident at a daily dose of 20 milligrams per kilogram of body weight (mg/kg), notably less than the current acceptable daily intake for humans," the authors write. Currently, the acceptable daily intake for humans is set at 50 mg/kg in the United States and 40 mg/kg in Europe.

                              Aspartame is the second most widely used artificial sweetener in the world. It is found in more than 6,000 products including carbonated and powdered soft drinks, hot chocolate, chewing gum, candy, desserts, yogurt, and tabletop sweeteners, as well as some pharmaceutical products like vitamins and sugar-free cough drops. More than 200 million people worldwide consume it. The sweetener has been used for more than 30 years, having first been approved by the FDA in 1974. Studies of the carcinogenicity of aspartame performed by its producers have been negative.

                              Researchers administered aspartame to Sprague-Dawley rats by adding it to a standard diet. They began studying the rats at 8 weeks of age and continued until the spontaneous death of each rat. Treatment groups received feed that contained concentrations of aspartame at dosages simulating human daily intakes of 5,000, 2,500, 500, 100, 20, and 4 mg/kg body weight. Groups consisted of 100 males and 100 females at each of the three highest dosages and 150 males and 150 females at all lower dosages and controls.

                              The experiment ended after the death of the last animal at 159 weeks. At spontaneous death, each animal underwent examination for microscopic changes in all organs and tissues, a process different from the aspartame studies conducted 30 years ago and one that was designed to allow aspartame to fully express any carcinogenic potential.

                              The treated animals showed extensive evidence of malignant cancers including lymphomas, leukemias, and tumors at multiple organ sites in both males and females. The authors speculate the increase in lymphomas and leukemias may be related to one of the metabolites in aspartame, namely methanol, which is metabolized in both rats and humans to formaldehyde. Both methanol and formaldehyde have shown links to lymphomas and leukemias in other long-term experiments by the same authors.

                              The current study included more animals over a longer period than earlier studies. "In our opinion, previous studies did not comply with today's basic requirements for testing the carcinogenic potential of a physical or chemical agent, in particular concerning the number of rodents for each experimental group (40-86, compared to 100-150 in the current study) and the termination of previous studies at only 110 weeks of age of the animals," the study authors wrote.

                              The authors of the study were Morando Soffritti, Fiorella Belpoggi, Davide Degli Esposti, Luca Lambertini, Eva Tibaldi, and Anna Rigano of the Cesare Maltoni Cancer Research Center, European Ramazzini Foundation of Oncology and Environmental Sciences, Bologna, Italy. Funding for the research was provided by the European Ramazzini Foundation of Oncology and Environmental Sciences, Bologna, Italy.



                              [url]http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/docs/2005/8711/abstract.html[/url]

                              First Experimental Demonstration of the Multipotential Carcinogenic Effects of Aspartame Administered in the Feed to Sprague-Dawley Rats
                              Morando Soffritti, Fiorella Belpoggi, Davide Degli Esposti, Luca Lambertini, Eva Tibaldi, and Anna Rigano

                              Cesare Maltoni Cancer Research Center, European Ramazzini Foundation of Oncology and Environmental Sciences, Bologna, Italy

                              Abstract
                              The Cesare Maltoni Cancer Research Center of the European Ramazzini Foundation has conducted a long-term bioassay on aspartame (APM) , a widely used artificial sweetener. APM was administered with feed to 8-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats (100-150/sex/group) , at concentrations of 100,000, 50,000, 10,000, 2,000, 400, 80, or 0 ppm. The treatment lasted until natural death, at which time all deceased animals underwent complete necropsy. Histopathologic evaluation of all pathologic lesions and of all organs and tissues collected was routinely performed on each animal of all experimental groups. The results of the study show for the first time that APM, in our experimental conditions, causes a) an increased incidence of malignant-tumor-bearing animals with a positive significant trend in males (p ≤ 0.05) and in females (p ≤ 0.01) , in particular those females treated at 50,000 ppm (p ≤ 0.01) ; b) an increase in lymphomas and leukemias with a positive significant trend in both males (p ≤ 0.05) and females (p ≤ 0.01) , in particular in females treated at doses of 100,000 (p ≤ 0.01) , 50,000 (p ≤ 0.01) , 10,000 (p ≤ 0.05) , 2,000 (p ≤ 0.05) , or 400 ppm (p ≤ 0.01) ; c) a statistically significant increased incidence, with a positive significant trend (p ≤ 0.01) , of transitional cell carcinomas of the renal pelvis and ureter and their precursors (dysplasias) in females treated at 100,000 (p ≤ 0.01) , 50,000 (p ≤ 0.01) , 10,000 (p ≤ 0.01) , 2,000 (p ≤ 0.05) , or 400 ppm (p ≤ 0.05) ; and d) an increased incidence of malignant schwannomas of peripheral nerves with a positive trend (p ≤ 0.05) in males. The results of this mega-experiment indicate that APM is a multipotential carcinogenic agent, even at a daily dose of 20 mg/kg body weight, much less than the current acceptable daily intake. On the basis of these results, a reevaluation of the present guidelines on the use and consumption of APM is urgent and cannot be delayed. Key words: artificial sweetener, aspartame, carcinogenicity, lymphomas, malignant schwannomas, rats, renal pelvis carcinomas. Environ Health Perspect 114:379-385 (2006) . doi:10.1289/ehp.8711 available via [url]http://dx.doi.org/[/url] [Online 17 November 2005]
                              Last edited by SuperD; 02-19-2010, 08:15 PM.

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