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  • STD prevention.

    STD facts and info are taken from the CDC website.



    Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by the herpes simplex viruses type 1 (HSV-1) and type 2 (HSV-2). Most genital herpes is caused by HSV-2. Most individuals have no or only minimal signs or symptoms from HSV-1 or HSV-2 infection. When signs do occur, they typically appear as one or more blisters on or around the genitals or rectum. The blisters break, leaving tender ulcers (sores) that may take two to four weeks to heal the first time they occur. Typically, another outbreak can appear weeks or months after the first, but it almost always is less severe and shorter than the first outbreak. Although the infection can stay in the body indefinitely, the number of outbreaks tends to decrease over a period of years.



    Results of a nationally representative study show that genital herpes infection is common in the United States. Nationwide, at least 45 million people ages 12 and older, or one out of five adolescents and adults, have had genital HSV infection. Between the late 1970s and the early 1990s, the number of Americans with genital herpes infection increased 30 percent.

    Genital HSV-2 infection is more common in women (approximately one out of four women) than in men (almost one out of five). This may be due to male-to-female transmissions being more likely than female-to-male transmission.



    HSV-1 and HSV-2 can be found in and released from the sores that the viruses cause, but they also are released between outbreaks from skin that does not appear to be broken or to have a sore. Generally, a person can only get HSV-2 infection during sexual contact with someone who has a genital HSV-2 infection. Transmission can occur from an infected partner who does not have a visible sore and may not know that he or she is infected.

    HSV-1 can cause genital herpes, but it more commonly causes infections of the mouth and lips, so-called “fever blisters.” HSV-1 infection of the genitals can be caused by oral-genital or genital-genital contact with a person who has HSV-1 infection. Genital HSV-1 outbreaks recur less regularly than genital HSV-2 outbreaks.



    Most people infected with HSV-2 are not aware of their infection. However, if signs and symptoms occur during the first outbreak, they can be quite pronounced. The first outbreak usually occurs within two weeks after the virus is transmitted, and the sores typically heal within two to four weeks. Other signs and symptoms during the primary episode may include a second crop of sores, and flu-like symptoms, including fever and swollen glands. However, most individuals with HSV-2 infection may never have sores, or they may have very mild signs that they do not even notice or that they mistake for insect bites or another skin condition.

    Most people diagnosed with a first episode of genital herpes can expect to have several (typically four or five) outbreaks (symptomatic recurrences) within a year. Over time these recurrences usually decrease in frequency.



    Genital herpes can cause recurrent painful genital sores in many adults, and herpes infection can be severe in people with suppressed immune systems. Regardless of severity of symptoms, genital herpes frequently causes psychological distress in people who know they are infected.

    In addition, genital HSV can cause potentially fatal infections in babies. It is important that women avoid contracting herpes during pregnancy because a first episode during pregnancy causes a greater risk of transmission to the baby. If a woman has active genital herpes at delivery, a cesarean delivery is usually performed. Fortunately, infection of a baby from a woman with herpes infection is rare.

    Herpes may play a role in the spread of HIV, the virus that causes AIDS. Herpes can make people more susceptible to HIV infection, and it can make HIV-infected individuals more infectious.



    The signs and symptoms associated with HSV-2 can vary greatly. Health care providers can diagnose genital herpes by visual inspection if the outbreak is typical, and by taking a sample from the sore(s) and testing it in a laboratory. HSV infections can be difficult to diagnose between outbreaks. Blood tests, which detect HSV-1 or HSV-2 infection, may be helpful, although the results are not always clear-cut.



    There is no treatment that can cure herpes, but antiviral medications can shorten and prevent outbreaks during the period of time the person takes the medication. In addition, daily suppressive therapy for symptomatic herpes can reduce transmission to partners.



    The surest way to avoid transmission of sexually transmitted diseases, including genital herpes, is to abstain from sexual contact, or to be in a long-term mutually monogamous relationship with a partner who has been tested and is known to be uninfected.

    Genital ulcer diseases can occur in both male and female genital areas that are covered or protected by a latex condom, as well as in areas that are not covered. Correct and consistent use of latex condoms can reduce the risk of genital herpes only when the infected area or site of potential exposure is protected. Since a condom may not cover all infected areas, even correct and consistent use of latex condoms cannot guarantee protection from genital herpes.

    Persons with herpes should abstain from sexual activity with uninfected partners when lesions or other symptoms of herpes are present. It is important to know that even if a person does not have any symptoms he or she can still infect sex partners. Sex partners of infected persons should be advised that they may become infected. Sex partners can seek testing to determine if they are infected with HSV. A positive HSV-2 blood test most likely indicates a genital herpes infection.



    CDC National STD and AIDS Hotlines
    (800) 227-8922 or (800) 342-2437
    En Espanol (800) 344-7432
    TTY for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing (800) 243-7889

    National Herpes Hotline
    (919) 361-8488



    Resources:

    CDC National Prevention Information Network (NPIN)
    P.O. Box 6003
    Rockville, MD 20849-6003
    1-800-458-5231
    1-888-282-7681 Fax
    1-800-243-7012 TTY

    American Social Health Association (ASHA)
    P. O. Box 13827
    Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-3827
    1-800-783-9877




    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Sexually Transmitted Diseases Treatment Guidelines 2002. MMWR 2002;51(no. RR-6)

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Sexually Transmitted Disease Surveillance, 2002. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Service, October 2003.

    Corey L, Wald A. Genital herpes. In: Holmes KK, Sparling PF, Mardh P et al (eds). Sexually Transmitted Disease, 3rd Edition. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1999, p. 285-312.

    Corey L, Wald A, Patel R et al. Once-daily valacyclovir to reduce the risk of transmission of genital herpes. New England Journal of Medicine 2004; 350:11-20.

    Fleming DT, McQuillan GM, Johnson RE, Nahmias AJ, Aral SO, Lee FK, St. Louis ME. Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 in the United States, 1976 to 1994. NEJM 1997; 16:1105-1111.

    Wald A, Langenberg AGM, Link K, et al. Effect of condoms on reducing the transmission of herpes simplex virus type 2 from men to women. JAMA 2001;285: 3100-3106.

    Wald A, Link K. Risk of human immunodeficiency virus infection in herpes simplex virus infection in herpes simplex virus type 2 – seropositive persons: A meta-analysis. J Infect Dis 2002; 185: 45-52.

    Weinstock H, Berman S, Cates W. Sexually transmitted diseases among American youth: Incidence and prevalence estimates, 2000. Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health 2004; 36:6-10.

  • #2
    Syphilis is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum. It has often been called “the great imitator” because so many of the signs and symptoms are indistinguishable from those of other diseases.



    In the United States, health officials reported over 32,000 cases of syphilis in 2002, including 6,862 cases of primary and secondary (P&S) syphilis. In 2002, half of all P&S syphilis cases were reported from 16 counties and 1 city; and most P&S syphilis cases occurred in persons 20 to 39 years of age. The incidence of infectious syphilis was highest in women 20 to 24 years of age and in men 35 to 39 years of age. Reported cases of congenital syphilis in newborns decreased from 2001 to 2002, with 492 new cases reported in 2001 compared to 412 cases in 2002.

    Between 2001 and 2002, the number of reported P & S syphilis cases increased 12.4 percent. Rates in women continued to decrease, and overall, the rate in men was 3.5 times that in women. This, in conjunction with reports of syphilis outbreaks in men who have sex with men (MSM), suggests that rates of syphilis in MSM are increasing.



    Syphilis is passed from person to person through direct contact with a syphilis sore. Sores occur mainly on the external genitals, vagina, anus, or in the rectum. Sores also can occur on the lips and in the mouth. Transmission of the organism occurs during vaginal, anal, or oral sex. Pregnant women with the disease can pass it to the babies they are carrying. Syphilis cannot be spread through contact with toilet seats, doorknobs, swimming pools, hot tubs, bathtubs, shared clothing, or eating utensils.



    Many people infected with syphilis do not have any symptoms for years, yet remain at risk for late complications if they are not treated. Although transmission appears to occur from persons with sores who are in the primary or secondary stage, many of these sores are unrecognized. Thus, most transmission is from persons who are unaware of their infection.

    Primary Stage
    The primary stage of syphilis is usually marked by the appearance of a single sore (called a chancre), but there may be multiple sores. The time between infection with syphilis and the start of the first symptom can range from 10 to 90 days (average 21 days). The chancre is usually firm, round, small, and painless. It appears at the spot where syphilis entered the body. The chancre lasts 3 to 6 weeks, and it heals without treatment. However, if adequate treatment is not administered, the infection progresses to the secondary stage.

    Secondary Stage
    Skin rash and mucous membrane lesions characterize the secondary stage. This stage typically starts with the development of a rash on one or more areas of the body. The rash usually does not cause itching. Rashes associated with secondary syphilis can appear as the chancre is healing or several weeks after the chancre has healed. The characteristic rash of secondary syphilis may appear as rough, red, or reddish brown spots both on the palms of the hands and the bottoms of the feet. However, rashes with a different appearance may occur on other parts of the body, sometimes resembling rashes caused by other diseases. Sometimes rashes associated with secondary syphilis are so faint that they are not noticed. In addition to rashes, symptoms of secondary syphilis may include fever, swollen lymph glands, sore throat, patchy hair loss, headaches, weight loss, muscle aches, and fatigue. The signs and symptoms of secondary syphilis will resolve with or without treatment, but without treatment, the infection will progress to the latent and late stages of disease.

    Late Stage
    The latent (hidden) stage of syphilis begins when secondary symptoms disappear. Without treatment, the infected person will continue to have syphilis even though there are no signs or symptoms; infection remains in the body. In the late stages of syphilis, it may subsequently damage the internal organs, including the brain, nerves, eyes, heart, blood vessels, liver, bones, and joints. This internal damage may show up many years later. Signs and symptoms of the late stage of syphilis include difficulty coordinating muscle movements, paralysis, numbness, gradual blindness, and dementia. This damage may be serious enough to cause death.



    The syphilis bacterium can infect the baby of a woman during her pregnancy. Depending on how long a pregnant woman has been infected, she may have a high risk of having a stillbirth (a baby born dead) or of giving birth to a baby who dies shortly after birth. An infected baby may be born without signs or symptoms of disease. However, if not treated immediately, the baby may develop serious problems within a few weeks. Untreated babies may become developmentally delayed, have seizures, or die.



    Some health care providers can diagnose syphilis by examining material from a chancre (infectious sore) using a special microscope called a dark-field microscope. If syphilis bacteria are present in the sore, they will show up when observed through the microscope.

    A blood test is another way to determine whether someone has syphilis. Shortly after infection occurs, the body produces syphilis antibodies that can be detected by an accurate, safe, and inexpensive blood test. A low level of antibodies will stay in the blood for months or years even after the disease has been successfully treated. Because untreated syphilis in a pregnant woman can infect and possibly kill her developing baby, every pregnant woman should have a blood test for syphilis.



    Genital sores (chancres) caused by syphilis make it easier to transmit and acquire HIV infection sexually. There is an estimated 2- to 5-fold increased risk of acquiring HIV infection when syphilis is present.

    Ulcerative STDs that cause sores, ulcers, or breaks in the skin or mucous membranes, such as syphilis, disrupt barriers that provide protection against infections. The genital ulcers caused by syphilis can bleed easily, and when they come into contact with oral and rectal mucosa during sex, increase the infectiousness of and susceptibility to HIV. Having other STDs is also an important predictor for becoming HIV infected because STDs are a marker for behaviors associated with HIV transmission.



    Syphilis is easy to cure in its early stages. A single intramuscular injection of penicillin, an antibiotic, will cure a person who has had syphilis for less than a year. Additional doses are needed to treat someone who has had syphilis for longer than a year. For people who are allergic to penicillin, other antibiotics are available to treat syphilis. There are no home remedies or over-the-counter drugs that will cure syphilis. Treatment will kill the syphilis bacterium and prevent further damage, but it will not repair damage already done.

    Because effective treatment is available, it is important that persons be screened for syphilis on an on-going basis if their sexual behaviors put them at risk for STDs.

    Persons who receive syphilis treatment must abstain from sexual contact with new partners until the syphilis sores are completely healed. Persons with syphilis must notify their sex partners so that they also can be tested and receive treatment if necessary.



    Having syphilis once does not protect a person from getting it again. Following successful treatment, people can still be susceptible to re-infection. Only laboratory tests can confirm whether someone has syphilis. Because syphilis sores can be hidden in the vagina, rectum, or mouth, it may not be obvious that a sex partner has syphilis. Talking with a health care provider will help to determine the need to be re-tested for syphilis after treatment has been received.



    The surest way to avoid transmission of sexually transmitted diseases, including syphilis, is to abstain from sexual contact or to be in a long-term mutually monogamous relationship with a partner who has been tested and is known to be uninfected.

    Avoiding alcohol and drug use may also help prevent transmission of syphilis because these activities may lead to risky sexual behavior. It is important that sex partners talk to each other about their HIV status and history of other STDs so that preventive action can be taken.

    Genital ulcer diseases, like syphilis, can occur in both male and female genital areas that are covered or protected by a latex condom, as well as in areas that are not covered. Correct and consistent use of latex condoms can reduce the risk of syphilis, as well as genital herpes and chancroid, only when the infected area or site of potential exposure is protected.

    Condoms lubricated with spermicides (especially Nonoxynol-9 or N-9) are no more effective than other lubricated condoms in protecting against the transmission of STDs. Based on findings from several research studies, N-9 may itself cause genital lesions, providing a point of entry for HIV and other STDs. In June 2001, the CDC recommended that N-9 not be used as a microbicide or lubricant during anal intercourse. Transmission of a STD, including syphilis cannot be prevented by washing the genitals, urinating, and or douching after sex. Any unusual discharge, sore, or rash, particularly in the groin area, should be a signal to refrain from having sex and to see a doctor immediately.



    Personal health inquiries and information about STDs:

    CDC National STD and AIDS Hotlines
    (800) 227-8922 or (800) 342-2437
    En Espanol (800) 344-7432
    TTY for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing (800) 243-7889

    Resources:

    CDC National Prevention Information Network (NPIN)
    P.O. Box 6003
    Rockville, MD 20849-6003
    1-800-458-5231
    1-888-282-7681 Fax
    1-800-243-7012 TTY


    American Social Health Association (ASHA)
    P. O. Box 13827
    Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-3827
    1-800-783-9877



    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines 2002. MMWR 2002;51(no. RR-6).

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Sexually Transmitted Disease Surveillance, 2002. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Service, September 2003.

    K. Holmes, P. Mardh, P. Sparling et al (eds). Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 3rd Edition. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1999, chapters 33-37.

    Comment


    • #3
      Genital HPV infection is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) that is caused by human papillomavirus (HPV). Human papillomavirus is the name of a group of viruses that includes more than 100 different strains or types. More than 30 of these viruses are sexually transmitted, and they can infect the genital area of men and women including the skin of the penis, vulva (area outside the vagina), or anus, and the linings of the vagina, cervix, or rectum. Most people who become infected with HPV will not have any symptoms and will clear the infection on their own.

      Some of these viruses are called “high-risk” types, and may cause abnormal Pap tests. They may also lead to cancer of the cervix, vulva, vagina, anus, or penis. Others are called “low-risk” types, and they may cause mild Pap test abnormalities or genital warts. Genital warts are single or multiple growths or bumps that appear in the genital area, and sometimes are cauliflower shaped.



      Approximately 20 million people are currently infected with HPV. At least 50 percent of sexually active men and women acquire genital HPV infection at some point in their lives. By age 50, at least 80 percent of women will have acquired genital HPV infection. About 6.2 million Americans get a new genital HPV infection each year.



      The types of HPV that infect the genital area are spread primarily through genital contact. Most HPV infections have no signs or symptoms; therefore, most infected persons are unaware they are infected, yet they can transmit the virus to a sex partner. Rarely, a pregnant woman can pass HPV to her baby during vaginal delivery. A baby that is exposed to HPV very rarely develops warts in the throat or voice box.



      Most people who have a genital HPV infection do not know they are infected. The virus lives in the skin or mucous membranes and usually causes no symptoms. Some people get visible genital warts, or have pre-cancerous changes in the cervix, vulva, anus, or penis. Very rarely, HPV infection results in anal or genital cancers.

      Genital warts usually appear as soft, moist, pink, or flesh-colored swellings, usually in the genital area. They can be raised or flat, single or multiple, small or large, and sometimes cauliflower shaped. They can appear on the vulva, in or around the vagina or anus, on the cervix, and on the penis, scrotum, groin, or thigh. After sexual contact with an infected person, warts may appear within weeks or months, or not at all.

      Genital warts are diagnosed by visual inspection. Visible genital warts can be removed by medications the patient applies, or by treatments performed by a health care provider. Some individuals choose to forego treatment to see if the warts will disappear on their own. No treatment regimen for genital warts is better than another, and no one treatment regimen is ideal for all cases.



      Most women are diagnosed with HPV on the basis of abnormal Pap tests. A Pap test is the primary cancer-screening tool for cervical cancer or pre-cancerous changes in the cervix, many of which are related to HPV. Also, a specific test is available to detect HPV DNA in women. The test may be used in women with mild Pap test abnormalities, or in women >30 years of age at the time of Pap testing. The results of HPV DNA testing can help health care providers decide if further tests or treatment are necessary.

      No HPV tests are available for men.



      There is no “cure” for HPV infection, although in most women the infection goes away on its own. The treatments provided are directed to the changes in the skin or mucous membrane caused by HPV infection, such as warts and pre-cancerous changes in the cervix.



      All types of HPV can cause mild Pap test abnormalities which do not have serious consequences. Approximately 10 of the 30 identified genital HPV types can lead, in rare cases, to development of cervical cancer. Research has shown that for most women (90 percent), cervical HPV infection becomes undetectable within two years. Although only a small proportion of women have persistent infection, persistent infection with “high-risk” types of HPV is the main risk factor for cervical cancer.

      A Pap test can detect pre-cancerous and cancerous cells on the cervix. Regular Pap testing and careful medical follow-up, with treatment if necessary, can help ensure that pre-cancerous changes in the cervix caused by HPV infection do not develop into life threatening cervical cancer. The Pap test used in U.S. cervical cancer screening programs is responsible for greatly reducing deaths from cervical cancer. For 2004, the American Cancer Society estimates that about 10,520 women will develop invasive cervical cancer and about 3,900 women will die from this disease. Most women who develop invasive cervical cancer have not had regular cervical cancer screening.



      The surest way to eliminate risk for genital HPV infection is to refrain from any genital contact with another individual.

      For those who choose to be sexually active, a long-term, mutually monogamous relationship with an uninfected partner is the strategy most likely to prevent future genital HPV infections. However, it is difficult to determine whether a partner who has been sexually active in the past is currently infected.

      For those choosing to be sexually active and who are not in long-term mutually monogamous relationships, reducing the number of sexual partners and choosing a partner less likely to be infected may reduce the risk of genital HPV infection. Partners less likely to be infected include those who have had no or few prior sex partners.

      HPV infection can occur in both male and female genital areas that are covered or protected by a latex condom, as well as in areas that are not covered. While the effect of condoms in preventing HPV infection is unknown, condom use has been associated with a lower rate of cervical cancer, an HPV-associated disease.





      Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Sexually Transmitted Diseases Treatment Guidelines 2002. MMWR 2002;51(no. RR-6).

      Ho GYF, Bierman R, Beardsley L, Chang CJ, Burk RD. Natural history of cervicovaginal papilloma virus infection in young women. N Engl J Med 1998;338:423-8.

      Koutsky LA, Kiviat NB. Genital human papillomavirus. In: K. Holmes, P. Sparling, P. Mardh et al (eds). Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 3rd edition. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1999, p. 347-359.

      Kiviat NB, Koutsky LA, Paavonen J. Cervical neoplasia and other STD-related genital tract neoplasias. In: K. Holmes, P. Sparling, P. Mardh et al (eds). Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 3rd edition. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1999, p. 811-831.

      Myers ER, McCrory DC, Nanda K, Bastian L, Matchar DB. Mathematical model for the natural history of human papillomavirus infection and cervical carcinogenesis. American Journal of Epidemiology 2000; 151(12):1158-1171.

      Watts DH, Brunham RC. Sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV infection in pregnancy. In: K. Holmes, P. Sparling, P. Mardh et al (eds). Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 3rd edition. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1999, 1089-1132.

      Weinstock H, Berman S, Cates W. Sexually transmitted disease among American youth: Incidence and prevalence estimates, 2000. Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health 2004; 36: 6-10..

      Comment


      • #4
        Trichomoniasis is a common sexually transmitted disease (STD) that affects both women and men, although symptoms are more common in women.



        Trichomoniasis is the most common curable STD in young, sexually active women. An estimated 7.4 million new cases occur each year in women and men.



        Trichomoniasis is caused by the single-celled protozoan parasite, Trichomonas vaginalis. The vagina is the most common site of infection in women, and the urethra (urine canal) is the most common site of infection in men. The parasite is sexually transmitted through penis-to-vagina intercourse or vulva-to-vulva (the genital area outside the vagina) contact with an infected partner. Women can acquire the disease from infected men or women, but men usually contract it only from infected women.



        Most men with trichomoniasis do not have signs or symptoms; however, some men may temporarily have an irritation inside the penis, mild discharge, or slight burning after urination or ejaculation.

        Some women have signs or symptoms of infection which include a frothy, yellow-green vaginal discharge with a strong odor. The infection also may cause discomfort during intercourse and urination, as well as irritation and itching of the female genital area. In rare cases, lower abdominal pain can occur. Symptoms usually appear in women within 5 to 28 days of exposure.



        The genital inflammation caused by trichomoniasis can increase a woman’s susceptibility to HIV infection if she is exposed to the virus. Having trichomoniasis may increase the chance that an HIV-infected woman passes HIV to her sex partner(s).



        Pregnant women with trichomoniasis may have babies who are born early or with low birth weight (less than five pounds).



        For both men and women, a health care provider must perform a physical examination and laboratory test to diagnose trichomoniasis. The parasite is harder to detect in men than in women. In women, a pelvic examination can reveal small red ulcerations (sores) on the vaginal wall or cervix.



        Trichomoniasis can usually be cured with the prescription drug, metronidazole, given by mouth in a single dose. The symptoms of trichomoniasis in infected men may disappear within a few weeks without treatment. However, an infected man, even a man who has never had symptoms or whose symptoms have stopped, can continue to infect or re-infect a female partner until he has been treated. Therefore, both partners should be treated at the same time to eliminate the parasite. Persons being treated for trichomoniasis should avoid sex until they and their sex partners complete treatment and have no symptoms. Metronidazole can be used by pregnant women.

        Having trichomoniasis once does not protect a person from getting it again. Following successful treatment, people can still be susceptible to re-infection.



        The surest way to avoid transmission of sexually transmitted diseases is to abstain from sexual contact, or to be in a long-term mutually monogamous relationship with a partner who has been tested and is known to be uninfected.

        Latex male condoms, when used consistently and correctly, can reduce the risk of transmission of trichomoniasis.

        Any genital symptom such as discharge or burning during urination or an unusual sore or rash should be a signal to stop having sex and to consult a health care provider immediately. A person diagnosed with trichomoniasis (or any other STD) should receive treatment and should notify all recent sex partners so that they can see a health care provider and be treated. This reduces the risk that the sex partners will develop complications from trichomoniasis and reduces the risk that the person with trichomoniasis will become re-infected. Sex should be stopped until the person with trichomoniasis and all of his or her recent partners complete treatment for trichomoniasis and have no symptoms.



        Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines 2002. MMWR 2002;51(no. RR-6).

        Krieger JN and Alderete JF. Trichomonas vaginalis and trichomoniasis. In: K. Holmes, P. Markh, P. Sparling et al (eds). Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 3rd Edition. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1999, 587-604.

        Weinstock H, Berman S, Cates W. Sexually transmitted disease among American youth: Incidence and prevalence estimates, 2000. Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health 2004; 36: 6-10.

        Comment


        • #5
          Bacterial Vaginosis (BV) is the name of a condition in women where the normal balance of bacteria in the vagina is disrupted and replaced by an overgrowth of certain bacteria. It is sometimes accompanied by discharge, odor, pain, itching, or burning.



          Bacterial Vaginosis (BV) is the most common vaginal infection in women of childbearing age. In the United States, as many as 16 percent of pregnant women have BV.



          The cause of BV is not fully understood. BV is associated with an imbalance in the bacteria that are normally found in a woman's vagina. The vagina normally contains mostly "good" bacteria, and fewer "harmful" bacteria. BV develops when there is an increase in harmful bacteria.

          Not much is known about how women get BV. There are many unanswered questions about the role that harmful bacteria play in causing BV. Any woman can get BV. However, some activities or behaviors can upset the normal balance of bacteria in the vagina and put women at increased risk including:

          Having a new sex partner or multiple sex partners,
          Douching, and
          Using an intrauterine device (IUD) for contraception.
          It is not clear what role sexual activity plays in the development of BV. Women do not get BV from toilet seats, bedding, swimming pools, or from touching objects around them. Women that have never had sexual intercourse are rarely affected.



          Women with BV may have an abnormal vaginal discharge with an unpleasant odor. Some women report a strong fish-like odor, especially after intercourse. Discharge, if present, is usually white or gray; it can be thin. Women with BV may also have burning during urination or itching around the outside of the vagina, or both. Some women with BV report no signs or symptoms at all.



          In most cases, BV causes no complications. But there are some serious risks from BV including:

          Having BV can increase a woman's susceptibility to HIV infection if she is exposed to the HIV virus.

          Having BV increases the chances that an HIV-infected woman can pass HIV to her sex partner.

          Having BV has been associated with an increase in the development of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) following surgical procedures such as a hysterectomy or an abortion.

          Having BV while pregnant may put a woman at increased risk for some complications of pregnancy.

          BV can increase a woman’s susceptibility to other STDs, such as Chlamydia and gonorrhea.



          Pregnant women with BV more often have babies who are born premature or with low birth weight (less than 5 pounds).

          The bacteria that cause BV can sometimes infect the uterus (womb) and fallopian tubes (tubes that carry eggs from the ovaries to the uterus). This type of infection is called pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). PID can cause infertility or damage the fallopian tubes enough to increase the future risk of ectopic pregnancy and infertility. Ectopic pregnancy is a life-threatening condition in which a fertilized egg grows outside the uterus, usually in a fallopian tube which can rupture.



          A health care provider must examine the vagina for signs of BV and perform laboratory tests on a sample of vaginal fluid to look for bacteria associated with BV.



          Although BV will sometimes clear up without treatment, all women with symptoms of BV should be treated to avoid such complications as PID. Male partners generally do not need to be treated. However, BV may spread between female sex partners.

          Treatment is especially important for pregnant women. All pregnant women who have ever had a premature delivery or low birth weight baby should be considered for a BV examination, regardless of symptoms, and should be treated if they have BV. All pregnant women who have symptoms of BV should be checked and treated.

          Some physicians recommend that all women undergoing a hysterectomy or abortion be treated for BV prior to the procedure, regardless of symptoms, to reduce their risk of developing PID.

          BV is treatable with antibiotics prescribed by a health care provider. Two different antibiotics are recommended as treatment for BV: metronidazole or clindamycin. Either can be used with non-pregnant or pregnant women, but the recommended dosages differ. Women with BV who are HIV-positive should receive the same treatment as those who are HIV-negative.

          BV can recur after treatment.



          BV is not completely understood by scientists, and the best ways to prevent it are unknown. However, it is known that BV is associated with having a new sex partner or having multiple sex partners. It is seldom found in women who have never had intercourse.

          The following basic prevention steps can help reduce the risk of upsetting the natural balance of bacteria in the vagina and developing BV:

          Be abstinent.

          Limit the number of sex partners.

          Do not douche.

          Use all of the medicine prescribed for treatment of BV, even if the signs and symptoms go away.





          Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines 2002. MMWR 2002;51(no. RR-6

          Hillier S and Holmes K. Bacterial vaginosis. In: K. Holmes, P. Sparling, P. Mardh et al (eds). Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 3rd Edition. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1999, 563-586.

          Comment


          • #6
            Chlamydia is a common sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by the bacterium, Chlamydia trachomatis, which can damage a woman’s reproductive organs. Even though symptoms of chlamydia are usually mild or absent, serious complications that cause irreversible damage, including infertility, can occur “silently” before a woman ever recognizes a problem. Chlamydia also can cause discharge from the penis of an infected man.



            Chlamydia is the most frequently reported bacterial sexually transmitted disease in the United States. In 2002, 834,555 chlamydial infections were reported to CDC from 50 states and the District of Columbia. Under-reporting is substantial because most people with chlamydia are not aware of their infections and do not seek testing. Also, testing is not often done if patients are treated for their symptoms. An estimated 2.8 million Americans are infected with chlamydia each year. Women are frequently re-infected if their sex partners are not treated.



            Chlamydia can be transmitted during vaginal, anal, or oral sex. Chlamydia can also be passed from an infected mother to her baby during vaginal childbirth.

            Any sexually active person can be infected with chlamydia. The greater the number of sex partners, the greater the risk of infection. Because the cervix (opening to the uterus) of teenage girls and young women is not fully matured, they are at particularly high risk for infection if sexually active. Since chlamydia can be transmitted by oral or anal sex, men who have sex with men are also at risk for chlamydial infection.



            Chlamydia is known as a “silent” disease because about three quarters of infected women and about half of infected men have no symptoms. If symptoms do occur, they usually appear within 1 to 3 weeks after exposure.

            In women, the bacteria initially infect the cervix and the urethra (urine canal). Women who have symptoms might have an abnormal vaginal discharge or a burning sensation when urinating. When the infection spreads from the cervix to the fallopian tubes (tubes that carry eggs from the ovaries to the uterus), some women still have no signs or symptoms; others have lower abdominal pain, low back pain, nausea, fever, pain during intercourse, or bleeding between menstrual periods. Chlamydial infection of the cervix can spread to the rectum.

            Men with signs or symptoms might have a discharge from their penis or a burning sensation when urinating. Men might also have burning and itching around the opening of the penis. Pain and swelling in the testicles are uncommon.

            Men or women who have receptive anal intercourse may acquire chlamydial infection in the rectum, which can cause rectal pain, discharge, or bleeding. Chlamydia can also be found in the throats of women and men having oral sex with an infected partner.



            If untreated, chlamydial infections can progress to serious reproductive and other health problems with both short-term and long-term consequences. Like the disease itself, the damage that chlamydia causes is often “silent.”

            In women, untreated infection can spread into the uterus or fallopian tubes and cause pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). This happens in up to 40 percent of women with untreated chlamydia. PID can cause permanent damage to the fallopian tubes, uterus, and surrounding tissues. The damage can lead to chronic pelvic pain, infertility, and potentially fatal ectopic pregnancy (pregnancy outside the uterus). Women infected with chlamydia are up to five times more likely to become infected with HIV, if exposed.

            To help prevent the serious consequences of chlamydia, screening at least annually for chlamydia is recommended for all sexually active women age 25 years and younger. An annual screening test also is recommended for older women with risk factors for chlamydia (a new sex partner or multiple sex partners). All pregnant women should have a screening test for chlamydia.

            Complications among men are rare. Infection sometimes spreads to the epididymis (a tube that carries sperm from the testis), causing pain, fever, and, rarely, sterility.

            Rarely, genital chlamydial infection can cause arthritis that can be accompanied by skin lesions and inflammation of the eye and urethra (Reiter’s syndrome).



            In pregnant women, there is some evidence that untreated chlamydial infections can lead to premature delivery. Babies who are born to infected mothers can get chlamydial infections in their eyes and respiratory tracts. Chlamydia is a leading cause of early infant pneumonia and conjunctivitis (pink eye) in newborns.



            There are laboratory tests to diagnose chlamydia. Some can be performed on urine, other tests require that a specimen be collected from a site such as the penis or cervix.



            Chlamydia can be easily treated and cured with antibiotics. A single dose of azithromycin or a week of doxycycline (twice daily) are the most commonly used treatments. HIV-positive persons with chlamydia should receive the same treatment as those who are HIV negative.

            All sex partners should be evaluated, tested, and treated. Persons with chlamydia should abstain from sexual intercourse until they and their sex partners have completed treatment, otherwise re-infection is possible.

            Women whose sex partners have not been appropriately treated are at high risk for re-infection. Having multiple infections increases a woman’s risk of serious reproductive health complications, including infertility. Retesting should be considered for women, especially adolescents, three to four months after treatment. This is especially true if a woman does not know if her sex partner received treatment.



            The surest way to avoid transmission of sexually transmitted diseases is to abstain from sexual contact, or to be in a long-term mutually monogamous relationship with a partner who has been tested and is known to be uninfected.

            Latex male condoms, when used consistently and correctly, can reduce the risk of transmission of chlamydia.

            Chlamydia screening is recommended annually for all sexually active women 25 years of age and younger. An annual screening test also is recommended for older women with risk factors for chlamydia (a new sex partner or multiple sex partners). All pregnant women should have a screening test for chlamydia.

            Any genital symptoms such as discharge or burning during urination or unusual sore or rash should be a signal to stop having sex and to consult a health care provider immediately. If a person has been treated for chlamydia (or any other STD), he or she should notify all recent sex partners so they can see a health care provider and be treated. This will reduce the risk that the sex partners will develop serious complications from chlamydia and will also reduce the person’s risk of becoming re-infected. The person and all of his or her sex partners must avoid sex until they have completed their treatment for chlamydia.



            Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Sexually Transmitted Diseases Treatment Guidelines 2002. MMWR 2002;51(no. RR-6).

            Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Sexually Transmitted Disease Surveillance, 2002. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Service, September 2003.

            Stamm W E. Chlamydia trachomatis infections of the adult. In: K. Holmes, P. Sparling, P. Mardh et al (eds). Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 3rd edition. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1999, 407-422.

            Weinstock H, Berman S, Cates W. Sexually transmitted disease among American youth: Incidence and prevalence estimates, 2000. Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health 2004; 36: 6-10.

            Comment


            • #7
              Gonorrhea is a sexually transmitted disease (STD). Gonorrhea is caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae, a bacterium that can grow and multiply easily in the warm, moist areas of the reproductive tract, including the cervix (opening to the womb), uterus (womb), and fallopian tubes (egg canals) in women, and in the urethra (urine canal) in women and men. The bacterium can also grow in the mouth, throat, eyes, and anus.



              Gonorrhea is a very common infectious disease. CDC estimates that more than 700,000 persons in the U.S. get new gonorrheal infections each year. Only about half of these infections are reported to CDC. In 2002, 351,852 cases of gonorrhea were reported to CDC. In the period from 1975 to 1997, the national gonorrhea rate declined, following the implementation of the national gonorrhea control program in the mid-1970s. After a small increase in 1998, the gonorrhea rate has decreased slightly since 1999. In 2002, the rate of reported gonorrheal infections was 125.0 per 100,000 persons.



              Gonorrhea is spread through contact with the penis, vagina, mouth, or anus. Ejaculation does not have to occur for gonorrhea to be transmitted or acquired. Gonorrhea can also be spread from mother to baby during delivery.

              People who have had gonorrhea and received treatment may get infected again if they have sexual contact with a person infected with gonorrhea.



              Any sexually active person can be infected with gonorrhea. In the United States, the highest reported rates of infection are among sexually active teenagers, young adults, and African Americans.



              Although many men with gonorrhea may have no symptoms at all, some men have some signs or symptoms that appear two to five days after infection; symptoms can take as long as 30 days to appear. Symptoms and signs include a burning sensation when urinating, or a white, yellow, or green discharge from the penis. Sometimes men with gonorrhea get painful or swollen testicles.

              In women, the symptoms of gonorrhea are often mild, but most women who are infected have no symptoms. Even when a woman has symptoms, they can be so non-specific as to be mistaken for a bladder or vaginal infection. The initial symptoms and signs in women include a painful or burning sensation when urinating, increased vaginal discharge, or vaginal bleeding between periods. Women with gonorrhea are at risk of developing serious complications from the infection, regardless of the presence or severity of symptoms.

              Symptoms of rectal infection in both men and women may include discharge, anal itching, soreness, bleeding, or painful bowel movements. Rectal infection also may cause no symptoms. Infections in the throat may cause a sore throat but usually causes no symptoms.



              Untreated gonorrhea can cause serious and permanent health problems in both women and men.

              In women, gonorrhea is a common cause of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). About one million women each year in the United States develop PID. Women with PID do not necessarily have symptoms. When symptoms are present, they can be very severe and can include abdominal pain and fever. PID can lead to internal abscesses (pus-filled “pockets” that are hard to cure) and long-lasting, chronic pelvic pain. PID can damage the fallopian tubes enough to cause infertility or increase the risk of ectopic pregnancy. Ectopic pregnancy is a life-threatening condition in which a fertilized egg grows outside the uterus, usually in a fallopian tube.

              In men, gonorrhea can cause epididymitis, a painful condition of the testicles that can lead to infertility if left untreated.

              Gonorrhea can spread to the blood or joints. This condition can be life threatening. In addition, people with gonorrhea can more easily contract HIV, the virus that causes AIDS. HIV-infected people with gonorrhea are more likely to transmit HIV to someone else.



              If a pregnant woman has gonorrhea, she may give the infection to her baby as the baby passes through the birth canal during delivery. This can cause blindness, joint infection, or a life-threatening blood infection in the baby. Treatment of gonorrhea as soon as it is detected in pregnant women will reduce the risk of these complications. Pregnant women should consult a health care provider for appropriate examination, testing, and treatment, as necessary.



              Several laboratory tests are available to diagnose gonorrhea. A doctor or nurse can obtain a sample for testing from the parts of the body likely to be infected (cervix, urethra, rectum, or throat) and send the sample to a laboratory for analysis. Gonorrhea that is present in the cervix or urethra can be diagnosed in a laboratory by testing a urine sample. A quick laboratory test for gonorrhea that can be done in some clinics or doctor’s offices is a Gram stain. A Gram stain of a sample from a urethra or a cervix allows the doctor to see the gonorrhea bacterium under a microscope. This test works better for men than for women.



              Several antibiotics can successfully cure gonorrhea in adolescents and adults. However, drug-resistant strains of gonorrhea are increasing in many areas of the world, including the United States, and successful treatment of gonorrhea is becoming more difficult. Because many people with gonorrhea also have chlamydia, another sexually transmitted disease, antibiotics for both infections are usually given together. Persons with gonorrhea should be tested for other STDs.

              It is important to take all of the medication prescribed to cure gonorrhea. Although medication will stop the infection, it will not repair any permanent damage done by the disease. People who have had gonorrhea and have been treated can get the disease again if they have sexual contact with persons infected with gonorrhea. If a person’s symptoms continue even after receiving treatment, he or she should return to a doctor to be reevaluated.



              The surest way to avoid transmission of sexually transmitted diseases is to abstain from sexual intercourse, or to be in a long-term mutually monogamous relationship with a partner who has been tested and is known to be uninfected.

              Latex condoms, when used consistently and correctly, can reduce the risk of transmission of gonorrhea.

              Any genital symptoms such as discharge or burning during urination or unusual sore or rash should be a signal to stop having sex and to see a doctor immediately. If a person has been diagnosed and treated for gonorrhea, he or she should notify all recent sex partners so they can see a health care provider and be treated. This will reduce the risk that the sex partners will develop serious complications from gonorrhea and will also reduce the person’s risk of becoming re-infected. The person and all of his or her sex partners must avoid sex until they have completed their treatment for gonorrhea.



              Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Sexually Transmitted Diseases Treatment Guidelines 2002. MMWR 2002;51(no. RR-6)

              Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Sexually Transmitted Disease Surveillance, 2002. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Service, October 2003.

              Hook, E.W. III and Handsfield, H.H. Gonococcal infections in the adult. In: K. Holmes, P. Markh, P. Sparling et al (eds). Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 3rd Edition. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1999, 451-466.

              Weinstock H, Berman S, Cates W. Sexually transmitted disease among American youth: Incidence and prevalence estimates, 2000. Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health 2004; 36: 6-10.

              Comment


              • #8
                Good thread Fancy......people need to be aware of these kinds of things. Supposedly there is a new type of herpes out now that is drug treatment resistant too. Getting scary!

                But, there is something that will cure and or alleviate all of this. There are RX drugs that are effective...but Ultraviolet Blood Irradiation will blow any and all of these microbes to kingdom come! And UBI has no detrimental side effects either.

                Even with a chronic infection such as herpes UBI will reduce the amount of virus to where it is harmless and may even clear the infection altogether.

                By the way....and this will freak everyone out I am sure. The NYC Board of Education found that latex condoms are not impermeable in regards to HPV and what is referred to as "HIV".

                I have this sourced...give me a minute and I will post the source.
                Dr Stuart Brody, PhD, author of "Sex at Risk" has also stated the same thing in regards to "HIV".

                So now everyone will freak-condoms do not protect against HIV trasnsmission??? And the HIV tests are so innacurate who the hell knows if they have or do not have this "HIV"???
                What the hell is going on??????

                Relax. Brody found-and this book is widely accepted by his peers and his research is regarded as impeccable-that HIV is hardly ever transmitted during heterosexual vaginal sex.

                I think the seroconversion rate for heterosexuals in which one partner is deemed "HIV positive" is about .0009%. i will be able to cite that when I get the book back as it is out on loan currently.
                However....in hetero couples that engage in anal sex-even with condoms-the seroconversion rate is pretty high.

                Might be a good time to rethink that back door thing if you are convinced that HIV causes AIDS.

                Yep...condoms do not prevent HIV transmission b/n partners. This so called HIV virus is from 50-450 times smaller than a sperm cell.

                In regards to condoms and what is called HIV-

                Doctors Zelig Friedman and LIliana Trivelli of the HIV/AIDS Advisory Council of New York City's Board of Education express grave concerns about condom effectiveness and write-

                " Condoms in regard to HIV are not impermeable"

                Friedman and Trivelli, "Condom Availability for Youth:A High Risk Alternative" Pediatrics, 2/97, p285

                Actually...there is a therapy that I like to refer to as "the medicine of the future" that will eradicate each and every virus, bacteria, fungus, and cancer cell w/o harming even one body cell. That technology is here today and has been here since the 1930's as it was invented/discovered by a genius of a scientist.

                More on this someother time.......lwe will have LOTS to talk about!
                [email protected] http://www.proactivehealthnet.com

                " We know that to err is human, but the HIV/AIDS hypothesis is one hell of a mistake"
                Dr. Kary Mullis, Nobel Prize Winner in Chemistry for inventing the Polymerase Chain Reaction


                "The fact is that you can not start off with bad science and end up with good medicine"

                Comment


                • #9
                  Also..in regards to condoms here is a link that has a study saying "Condoms contain cancer causing substance"

                  I have not been able to open it...maybe someone else can and post it.

                  reuters.com/newsarticle.jhtml?type=healthnews&storyid=5289700

                  I also have some info that condoms cause cancer in females....I will post that with the "HIV" post that I am preparing.
                  [email protected] http://www.proactivehealthnet.com

                  " We know that to err is human, but the HIV/AIDS hypothesis is one hell of a mistake"
                  Dr. Kary Mullis, Nobel Prize Winner in Chemistry for inventing the Polymerase Chain Reaction


                  "The fact is that you can not start off with bad science and end up with good medicine"

                  Comment


                  • #10
                    Originally posted by SuperSport
                    Good thread Fancy......people need to be aware of these kinds of things. Supposedly there is a new type of herpes out now that is drug treatment resistant too. Getting scary!

                    But, there is something that will cure and or alleviate all of this. There are RX drugs that are effective...but Ultraviolet Blood Irradiation will blow any and all of these microbes to kingdom come! And UBI has no detrimental side effects either.

                    Even with a chronic infection such as herpes UBI will reduce the amount of virus to where it is harmless and may even clear the infection altogether.

                    By the way....and this will freak everyone out I am sure. The NYC Board of Education found that latex condoms are not impermeable in regards to HPV and what is referred to as "HIV".

                    I have this sourced...give me a minute and I will post the source.
                    Dr Stuart Brody, PhD, author of "Sex at Risk" has also stated the same thing in regards to "HIV".

                    So now everyone will freak-condoms do not protect against HIV trasnsmission??? And the HIV tests are so innacurate who the hell knows if they have or do not have this "HIV"???
                    What the hell is going on??????

                    Relax. Brody found-and this book is widely accepted by his peers and his research is regarded as impeccable-that HIV is hardly ever transmitted during heterosexual vaginal sex.

                    I think the seroconversion rate for heterosexuals in which one partner is deemed "HIV positive" is about .0009%. i will be able to cite that when I get the book back as it is out on loan currently.
                    However....in hetero couples that engage in anal sex-even with condoms-the seroconversion rate is pretty high.

                    Might be a good time to rethink that back door thing if you are convinced that HIV causes AIDS.

                    Yep...condoms do not prevent HIV transmission b/n partners. This so called HIV virus is from 50-450 times smaller than a sperm cell.

                    In regards to condoms and what is called HIV-

                    Doctors Zelig Friedman and LIliana Trivelli of the HIV/AIDS Advisory Council of New York City's Board of Education express grave concerns about condom effectiveness and write-

                    " Condoms in regard to HIV are not impermeable"

                    Friedman and Trivelli, "Condom Availability for Youth:A High Risk Alternative" Pediatrics, 2/97, p285

                    Actually...there is a therapy that I like to refer to as "the medicine of the future" that will eradicate each and every virus, bacteria, fungus, and cancer cell w/o harming even one body cell. That technology is here today and has been here since the 1930's as it was invented/discovered by a genius of a scientist.

                    More on this someother time.......lwe will have LOTS to talk about!

                    OZONE THERAPY

                    Comment


                    • #11
                      Originally posted by Richard85
                      OZONE THERAPY
                      Aha!!! Do we have another oxygen junkie at IM besides myself??!


                      Glad to see someone else that may be familiar with bio oxidative medicine...Ozone is very popular in Germany, some MD's use it here also.


                      Actually...what I am referring to in my previous post does not use ozone, UBI, or peroxide......in due time we will go into this revolutionary therapy. I am meeting with an MD in the coming weeks to discuss some of this.

                      For the record....ozone (O3) is bubbled into the bloodstream / or 250 ml of blood is infused with Ozone and then returned to the patient-this "oxygenates" the blood and enhances oxidation of pathogens. Many viruses are enveloped with a lipid which is destroyed by oxygen.

                      There are also ways to introduce ozone into the body using the rectal cavity....there are companies that make "ozone sticks" that will fit into the rectum and the ozone is absorbed.
                      I haven't tried this.....do we have any volunteers? Hey...where is Jaywooley.....?



                      Richard85...have you used Ozone or any other bio-oxidative therapies??
                      [email protected] http://www.proactivehealthnet.com

                      " We know that to err is human, but the HIV/AIDS hypothesis is one hell of a mistake"
                      Dr. Kary Mullis, Nobel Prize Winner in Chemistry for inventing the Polymerase Chain Reaction


                      "The fact is that you can not start off with bad science and end up with good medicine"

                      Comment


                      • #12
                        Thanks SS. Ppl seem to be more sexually active in the BB, and "fighter" worlds. Couldn't be the extra test, could it????lol

                        i didnt know that about condoms. I'll try to open up that link.

                        Comment


                        • #13
                          Originally posted by SuperSport
                          Aha!!! Do we have another oxygen junkie at IM besides myself??!


                          Glad to see someone else that may be familiar with bio oxidative medicine...Ozone is very popular in Germany, some MD's use it here also.


                          Actually...what I am referring to in my previous post does not use ozone, UBI, or peroxide......in due time we will go into this revolutionary therapy. I am meeting with an MD in the coming weeks to discuss some of this.

                          For the record....ozone (O3) is bubbled into the bloodstream / or 250 ml of blood is infused with Ozone and then returned to the patient-this "oxygenates" the blood and enhances oxidation of pathogens. Many viruses are enveloped with a lipid which is destroyed by oxygen.

                          There are also ways to introduce ozone into the body using the rectal cavity....there are companies that make "ozone sticks" that will fit into the rectum and the ozone is absorbed.
                          I haven't tried this.....do we have any volunteers? Hey...where is Jaywooley.....?



                          Richard85...have you used Ozone or any other bio-oxidative therapies??

                          no, fortunatly i have never got any crazy diseases, but there are many studies showing that it works ,but the FDA are douchebags and wont let people utilize it, wow the cure for AIDS.. thats crazy

                          Comment


                          • #14
                            Originally posted by SuperSport
                            Aha!!! Do we have another oxygen junkie at IM besides myself??!


                            Glad to see someone else that may be familiar with bio oxidative medicine...Ozone is very popular in Germany, some MD's use it here also.


                            Actually...what I am referring to in my previous post does not use ozone, UBI, or peroxide......in due time we will go into this revolutionary therapy. I am meeting with an MD in the coming weeks to discuss some of this.

                            For the record....ozone (O3) is bubbled into the bloodstream / or 250 ml of blood is infused with Ozone and then returned to the patient-this "oxygenates" the blood and enhances oxidation of pathogens. Many viruses are enveloped with a lipid which is destroyed by oxygen.

                            There are also ways to introduce ozone into the body using the rectal cavity....there are companies that make "ozone sticks" that will fit into the rectum and the ozone is absorbed.
                            I haven't tried this.....do we have any volunteers? Hey...where is Jaywooley.....?



                            Richard85...have you used Ozone or any other bio-oxidative therapies??

                            Supersport, ive read studeis where people using ozone therapy that have had HIV have gone negative, have you read any? if so they should be doing it in the US!!

                            Comment


                            • #15
                              This is an excellent topic Richard. Yes-I have heard of Ozone and other things making people who tested HIV positive converting to HIV negative. I have read of many cases of people using herbal medicine, Bio oxidative therapies, and the aggressive anti-retroviral RX drugs and converting to "HIV negative". The reason for this is simple.

                              The HIV antibody tests are merely a measurement of antibody LEVELS. If you exceed the "threshold"-which is apparantly an arbitrary number (who comes up with this I have no idea) you are told you are "positive"....if you are below the threshold you are told you are negative. These tests are not "yes or no tests"...they are not black and white-they are grey.
                              Tell me that makes sense. This whole HIV fiasco is a sham.

                              I recently had a discussion with a PhD/MD student that runs a vaccine program at a large US university-the vaccine program uses a monkey that has human genes inserted within it, if memory serves correct. Anyway-our discussion was at MC and just as we were really getting into the good stuff-he chose to vacate the thread after I asked him some tough questions that he had no answer for (the % of CD-4 lymphocytes that are infected by this "HIV" was one that I recall) . He also had no answers-and totally avoided the issue of Idiopathic T-cell Lymphocytopenia (ICL). This is AIDS with no HIV present....and about 30x more people suffer from this ICL than there are people with AIDS that are deemed "HIV positive".
                              Same disease. 2 names. What a crock.

                              Anyway...during our discussion he told me that he and he staff do alot of testing with one of the ELISA test kits-the Elmer Perkin kit I believe. To quote him-" We see a higher rate of false negatives because the threshold is too high". Isn't that interesting?!

                              He also revealed that they "see a positive become a negative".

                              I have been jumping up and down telling people on several boards that these tests are not accurate....and in fact there are around 70 things will cause an HIV antibody test to turn up positive that has nothing to do with this "HIV" thing. Stuff like Hepatitis-b vaccinations, flu, pregnancy-even carbohydrate complexes-can cause a "false positive".

                              And i am especially concerned-and I am serious about this-that there is a possibility that BBer's who use gear could generate antibodies to their tren powder, cottonseed oil, etc, and react positively on an HIV antibody test.

                              NONE of the tests are specific for HIV. This is an absolutely huge ordeal in HIV/AIDS technology.

                              I follow the opinion of the Group for the Scientific Reapprasial of AIDS-this is a group of almost 2000scientists and MD's ( several Nobel prize winners also) from all over the world that are adamant that HIV is not the cause of AIDS and in fact does not exist. In their opinion-and I agree-all "positive" reactions on the HIV antibody tests and viral load tests are "false positive".

                              This virus has never been properly isolated or purified-thus it is impossible to have a "gold standard". This is a blueprint of the virus so you can make an accurate test.
                              There is no blue print.

                              And it should be known that an antibody test-no matter if repeated a million times with a positive reaction-does not prove the existence of a viral infection.


                              More on all of this in a couple of months...I am tying up some loose ends and will make my post soon thereafter.

                              Great to see your interest in this.....it should be a huge concern to everyone. Regardless of your sexual orientation or history-even if you have never even had sex-you could walk into your doctor's office and learn you are "positive" even though you are not in a "risk group". Nothing like getting blindsided by a freight train.

                              I have hard scientific proof (if there really is such a thing!) that is fully documented that will disprove the HIV/AIDS hypothesis and expose the shortcomings of all the HIV testing.
                              Last edited by SuperSport; 07-12-2004, 08:48 PM.
                              [email protected] http://www.proactivehealthnet.com

                              " We know that to err is human, but the HIV/AIDS hypothesis is one hell of a mistake"
                              Dr. Kary Mullis, Nobel Prize Winner in Chemistry for inventing the Polymerase Chain Reaction


                              "The fact is that you can not start off with bad science and end up with good medicine"

                              Comment

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