Announcement

Collapse
No announcement yet.

The efficacy of Beta-Alanine, a literature review - By Yours Truly

Collapse
X
 
  • Filter
  • Time
  • Show
Clear All
new posts

  • The efficacy of Beta-Alanine, a literature review - By Yours Truly

    So, if anyone doesn't know, I am pursuing my PhD in Physiology (ex phys to be more precise). I do a ton of writing and researching/lab work for school, and a part of our school is to write literature reviews ALL THE FREAKING TIME.

    For the laymen, a lit review is basically an overview of a topic put together from already established research studies. The following is my literature review on beta-alanine...something I find very interesting. AND, since I am not worrying about getting this published in anyway (could care less if I am credited for putting it together, as it's just a narrative review of previously obtained data), I figured I would share.

    Now, this isn't the entire review, as I have edited a good bit out on the sections that deal with just what exactly beta alanine is, and just how it works (pathways, receptors, enzymes etc) because it's a VERY dry read. But what I am posting is gonna be interesting to many people here.

    Without further Adieu, here is the slightly edited version. oh, and by the way My name is Marc Sestok.

    UNIVERSITY OF PITTSBURGH


    The efficacy of Beta Alanine as an Ergogenic aid in Exercise and Sport


    Literature Review

    Marc Sestok


    December, 2011

    ABSTRACT:
    In this literature review, the overall effectiveness of the amino acid Beta Alanine as an ergogenic aid is discussed. The current knowledge and background information on the uses of beta alanine in exercise settings are presented in the following review. The physiologic response to the introduction of beta alanine into the human body and the potential benefits derived from such supplementation are also presented. It has been demonstrated that the primary use of beta alanine in sport performance settings is the ability of the amino acid to help buffer blood lactate. Following this information regarding the uses of beta alanine, reviews of past studies and outcomes presented by these studies are addressed. Lastly, a discussion on potential future research questions is given by the reviewer.



    The efficacy of Beta Alanine as an Ergogenic aid in Exercise and Sport

    The sport supplement industry is a notoriously lucrative market, which generated over $22.5 billion in the year 2006 alone (Dobson & DaVanzo 2009). One of the most prominent sport supplements today, the amino acid beta-alanine has shown promise in becoming the next staple supplement in an athlete’s supplement arsenal to delay onset of fatigue. Beta-alanine’s prowess as an ergogenic aid arises from the effects on skeletal muscle’s acute physiologic response to exercise, most notably the generation of the dipeptide carnosine (beta-alanyl-L-histidine).

    Carnosine consists of the amino acids beta-alanine and histidine. Found primarily in skeletal muscle and brain tissue, carnosine is formed by the bonding of beta-alanine and histidine through a reaction catalyzed by carnosine synthase, which is a naturally occurring reaction (Sale, C., Saunders, B., & Harris, R. 2010). The primary use of carnosine within skeletal muscle is as a pH buffer for lactic acid. This primary use was documented by Bate-Smith (1938) who showed carnosine to have side chain acid disassociation content of 6.83, indicating carnosine as a proper buffer for blood over the physiological pH range. Due to this buffering capacity, carnosine has relevance in sports performance in helping delay the onset of the lactate threshold due to increased blood acidity. However, direct carnosine supplementation is ineffective as a performance aid due rapid degradation upon oral ingestion via the hydrolyzing enzyme carnosinase (Hoffman et al, 2008). Therefore, increasing skeletal muscle carnosine must be completed through a different mechanism than direct supplementation of carnosine; beta-alanine supplementation is utilized to achieve an increase in intramuscular carnosine .

    Even though the combination of beta-alanine and histidine is what comprises carnosine, supplementation of beta-alanine alone helps promote increased levels of carnosine in skeletal muscle. Since carnosine has a greater affinity for histidine and plasma levels of histidine are universally higher than that of beta-alanine, it is beta alanine that establishes itself as the rate-limiting substrate of carnosine synthesis ( Horinshi H, Grillo M, Margolis Fl. 1978, Ng , Marshall FD 1978). Hence, beta-alanine and not histidine is used in sports performance settings as an ergogenic aid.
    As previously described, the formation of carnosine in muscle tissue causes a buffering effect. Once blood pH levels reach an acidic state, via lactic acid accumulation, the body will be unable to eliminate the accumulated lactic acid and muscular fatigue will occur during intense exercise.
    Supplementation of beta-alanine has been shown to increase time to exhaustion, which allows an athlete to elicit greater training effects derived from the increased capacity for workload. The purpose of this literature review is to present the efficacy of beta-alanine as an ergogenic aid in performance training and sport.

    Supplementation and Skeletal Muscle Carnosine Concentrations

    There are numerous avenues that researchers have investigated regarding the use of beta alanine as an ergogenic aid. Questions of beta alanine accumulation in muscle tissue, side effects, dose dependant relationships, and overall muscle carnosine saturation have been examined through studies.

    Because of rapid degradation upon oral ingestion, carnosine’s rate of resynthesis in skeletal muscle is limited to the plasma concentrations of its constituent amino acids. This resynthesis is further limited in that beta-alanine, found in low concentrations naturally in plasma, has a high affinity for carnosine synthase (Skaper SD, Das S, Marshall FD, 1978). As mentioned previously, this is to say that beta alanine is the rate limiting agent in carnosine’s production.

    Harris et al (2006) were among the first researchers to study the effects of carnosine levels through supplementation of beta alanine. During the study, Harris et al found a dose dependent side effect of beta alanine. This side effect was termed “flushing” and manifested as short term mild paraesthesia of the skin. This flushing was described as “an unpleasant prickly sensation on the skin that lasted about sixty minutes post ingestion” by subjects (Harris et al p. 281, 2006). This was the first and only side effect of beta alanine supplementation found to date.

    The Harris study also concluded information on the time to peak concentration of plasma beta alanine. The study showed that, regardless of dose, the time to peak concentration was between thirty to forty minutes with the half-life of beta alanine being at a mean of twenty five minutes (Harris et al, 2006). The Harris study also compared the effects of four weeks of beta alanine supplementation to the effects of four weeks direct carnosine supplementation. The study utilized a placebo group, a beta alanine group and a carnosine group. The results showed that all groups had increased plasma carnosine levels. However, it was the carnosine group that showed the highest increases in plasma carnosine (Harris et al, 2006). These findings were said to be controversial, due to the possibility of subject adherence to supplementation protocol being low. Further, it had been established that the direct supplementation of carnosine is a waste to do the rapid degradation of carnosine upon oral ingestion in humans. These findings therefore caused investigators to delve deeper into the physiology behind intra-muscular carnosine concentration and the controversy surrounding the Harris four week comparison protocol caused a subsequent investigation into the matter by Hill et al (2007).

    During the Hill study, skeletal muscle carnosine levels were assessed over a ten week period in cyclists via muscle biopsy. After four weeks of supplementation, levels of muscle carnosine were shown to be elevated 60% in subjects and again were shown to raise another 20% after ten weeks (Hill et al, 2007). Hill also demonstrated that further increases in carnosine could be seen in lengthier administration of beta alanine. Due to this evidence of longer supplementation with beta alanine resulting in an increased concentration of carnosine, it can be said that the findings presented by Harris et al are void because four weeks of beta alanine supplementation is simply too brief of a period to see a threshold level of carnosine storage in muscle tissue (Hill et al, 2007).

    The aforementioned studies showed that beta alanine is effective in raising plasma concentration of carnosine, but further research needed to be conducted to establish how long the effects of supplementation lasted in the body after cessation of use. Baguet et al (2009) were the first to study this measure. Baguet et al tested the effects of beta alanine supplementation in fifteen untrained subjects over a six week period. Concentrations of carnosine were assessed in all subjects via proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (Baguet et al, 2009). The findings were that plasma carnosine levels dropped 2-4% on average per week with mean concentrations remaining significantly elevated after three weeks of stoppage of supplementation (Baguet et al, 2009). After statistical analysis, some subjects were deemed to be “high” responders or “low” responders to beta alanine administration. This indicates individual variability within consumers and as such calls for case by case dosing protocol of beta alanine to elicit ergogenic effects. (Baguet et al, 2009).

    The ergogenic effects of beta alanine supplementation cannot be assessed solely by looking at the effects on carnosine concentrations by the use of beta alanine; direct effects on exercise performance must be reviewed.

    Effects on Acute Exercise performance

    The physiological effect of beta alanine on performance has been shown to come from a group of different mechanisms. One such mechanism demonstrated by Jordan et al (2010) is beta alanine’s ability to buffer blood lactate accumulation during exercise. This study looked at seventeen recreational active men in their mid to late twenties. The subjects participated in graded treadmill tests both before and after a twenty eight day supplementation period of six grams of beta alanine per day (Jordan et al, 2010). The results showed an increased performance due to the delaying of the onset of blood lactate accumulation in the subjects which were given beta alanine and not a placebo. In another study conducted by Zoeller R.F. , Stout J.R., O’Kroy J.A., Torok D.J., and Mielke M, (2007) similar findings were reported, although creatine monohydrate was used in conjunction with beta alanine during the study. The findings by Zoeller et all can still be said to apply solely to beta alanine supplementation’s effect on blood lactate responses and not due to creatine because of the lack of evidence of creatine’s use as a buffer and the overabundance of beta alanine as one.

    Beta alanine’s effect on power output has also been studied. Suzuki Y., Ito O., Mukai N., Takahashi H., and Takamatsu K. (2002) conducted a study looking at the effects on power intra-muscular carnosine levels had on maximal cycling. The study found that there was a direct relationship between the amount of muscular carnosine and the power output during the last stretch of a thirty second maximal cycling test (Suzuki et al, 2002). From this, Suzuki et al concluded that high intensity exercise performance could be improved by increasing the concentrations of plasma carnosine. Hoffman et al further showed this relationship in a study looking at twenty six collegiate football players (2008). During a modified Wingate test for maximal aerobic power, a trend for lower fatigue was seen in players who were administered beta alanine as well as a report of less feelings of fatigue in these players after the conclusion of the test (Hoffman et al, 2008). Thienen et al (2009) have also observed that beta alanine supplementation can have a positive effect on sprint power. During the study, Thienen et al observed twenty one participants who engaged in a 110 minute endurance test that consisted of intermittent stages of high and lower power outputs. Subjects were tested multiple times over an 8 week span. After a supplementation period of beta alanine, subjects were shown to increase their peak, mean, and final power outputs 11.2%, 4.9%, and 10.9% respectively (Thienen et al, 2009).

    Another acute effect of exercise that has been assessed with the supplementation of beta alanine has to do with hormonal response. A study looking at the effects of thirty days of beta alanine supplementation on resistance exercise performance was conducted by Hoffman et al (2008). Along with direct comparison of exercise performance in both a placebo and test group, this study looked at the serum concentrations of growth hormone, testosterone, and cortisol levels in subjects performing 70% of their one repetition maximums on the free barbell squat exercise over a period of four weeks. Serum hormone levels were assessed at baseline, fifteen minutes post-exercise, and thirty minutes post-exercise. The findings of the study showed a 22% increase in the number of repetitions performed from baseline to the end of the study in the test group versus the placebo group (Hoffman et al, 2008). Elevations in growth hormone levels were similar in both placebo and test groups, cortisol levels were elevated in both groups, and testosterone levels remained unchanged in both groups (Hoffman et al, 2008). These findings indicate that while beta alanine supplementation can significantly improve time to exhaustion in resistance training, there is no endocrine response through supplementation of beta alanine. This helps classify beta alanine as different from other ergogenic aids such as those that boost hormonal profiles, an example of which can be seen through administration of anabolic steroids.

    Summary
    Beta alanine is an amino acid which helps the body in production of the dipeptide carnosine which is found in skeletal muscle tissue. It has been consistently shown that concentration of intra-muscular carnosine is correlated to exercise performance. Carnosine plays a vital role in blood lactate buffering, which in turn helps delay the onset of fatigue during exercise. Beta alanine supplementation has been shown throughout numerous studies to illicit a positive effect in delaying lactic acid accumulation during exercise and to reduce levels of fatigue during high intensity exercise in general. These positive effects are shown to be the direct result of increased skeletal muscle carnosine levels via the introduction of beta alanine.
    Discussion

    Though it has been shown to reduce fatigue in exercise, there are still questions to be asked regarding whether or not the supplementation of beta alanine can be beneficial to all types of athletes equally. The studies mentioned above did make use of different demographics of athletes ranging from football players, to cyclists, to recreationally active subjects, but the studies all utilized similar testing methods and all focused on the effects of time to fatigue. Even though some of the aforementioned studies did look at power output, more tests need to be conducted in establishing the effects of repeated maximal muscular strength tests and the use of beta alanine. This can show whether or not a type II muscle fiber dominant athlete can benefit as much as a type I fiber dominant athlete. This discrepancy can be seen in the results of studies looking at cyclists as opposed to sprinters. Even though some headway has been made into this discussion of fiber dominance in the studies looked at in this review, a clear cut answer remains to be seen and much more study is needed.

    Though touched on slightly in some of the studies reviewed, the subject of combining beta alanine and other already established ergogenic aids is an interesting one. Perhaps there are combinations of other amino acids that, when used with supplementation, can yield an even greater synergistic training effect than simply supplementing with beta-alanine alone. Creatine was mentioned in some of the studies reviewed, but perhaps other aids, such as Nitrous Oxide boosters that have been shown to increase blood flow, can be used to enhance the effect of beta alanine.

    Overall, the efficacy of beta alanine as an ergogenic aid has been tested thoroughly and proven to be a supplement worthy of use in elite level athletes. The only questions the remained unanswered are those that ask what can be done to absolutely maximize the usefulness of beta alanine in performance settings.









    References
    Baguet A, Reyngoudt H, Pottier A, Everaert I, Callens S, Achten E, Derave W (2009) Carnosine loading and washout in human skeletal muscles. J Appl Physiol(106, Pp. 837–842)

    Bate-Smith EC (1938). The buffering of muscle in rigour: protein, phosphate, and carnosine. J Physiol (92). Pp. 336-343.

    Dobson DaVanzo & Associates, LLC, Joan E. DaVanzo, Ph.D., M.S.W., Steven Heath, M.P.A., Audrey El-Gamil, Allen Dobson, Ph.D. (2009) The Economic Contribution of the Dietary Supplement Industry - Analyses of the Economic Benefits to the U.S. Economy. Natural Products Foundation’s Dietary Supplement Information Bureau

    Harris RC, Tallon MJ, Dunnett M, Boobis LH, Coakley J, Kim HJ, Fallowfield JL, Hill CA, Sale C, Wise JA (2006) The absorption of orally supplied b-alanine and its effect on muscle carnosine synthesis in human vastus lateralis. Amino Acids (30, Pp.279–289)

    Hill CA, Harris RC, Kim HJ, Harris BD, Sale C, Boobis LH, Kim CK, Wise JA (2007) Influence of b-alanine supplementation on skeletal muscle carnosine concentrations and high intensity cycling capacity. Amino Acids(32, Pp. 225–233)

    J. Hoffman, N. A. Ratamess, R. Ross, J. Kang, J. Magrelli,K. Neese, A. D. Faigenbaum, J. A. Wise (2008). β-Alanine and the Hormonal Response to Exercise. Int J Sports Med (29(12) pp. 952-958)
    Horinshi H, Grillo M, Margolis Fl. (1978) Purification and characterization of carnosine synthetase from mouse olfactory bulbs. J Neurochem. (31,4. Pp. 909-919)

    Jordan et al. (2007) Effect of beta-alanine supplementation on the onset of blood lactate accumulation (OBLA) during treadmill running: Pre/post 2 treatment experimental design. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition (7 ,pp. 20)

    Ng RH, Marshall FD (1978). Regional and subcellular distribution of homocarnosine-carnosine sythetase in the central nervous system of rats. J Neurochem. ( 30, 1. Pp. 187-190.)

    Sale, C., Saunders, B., & Harris, R. (2010) Effect of beta-alanine supplementation on muscle carnosine concentrations and exercise performance. Amino Acids, 39,(2). pP. 321-333.
    Skaper SD, Das S, Marshall FD (1973) Some properties of a homocarnosine-carnosine synthetase isolated from rat brain. J Neurochem 2, Pp. 1429–1445

    Suzuki Y, Ito O, Mukai N, Takahashi H, Takamatsu K (2002) High levels of skeletal muscle carnosine contributes to the latter half of exercise performance during maximal cycle ergometer sprinting. Jpn J Physiol (52, pp. 199–205)

    van Thienen R, van Proeyen K, vanden Eynde B, Puype J, Lefere T, Hespel P (2009) b-alanine improves sprint performance in endurance cycling. Med Sci Sports Exerc (41, Pp. 898–903)

    Zoeller R.F. , Stout J.R., O’Kroy J.A.,Torok D.J., and Mielke M, (2007) Effects of 28 days of beta-alanine and creatine monohydrate supplementation on aerobic power, ventilatory and lactate thresholds, and time to exhaustion. Amino Acids (33, pp. 505–510)
    Last edited by Lock it Up; 01-22-2012, 05:05 PM.

    2012 EUP's Mission Submission II
    -1st SuperHeavy Gi
    2012 Hayastan Grappling Challenge New York
    -1st Heavyweight Gi
    2011 Slippery Rock Open Collegiate Championships, 4th-Open Heavyweight, 220lbs
    2008 NGA Pittsburgh Bodybuilding Championships, 2nd-Open Juniors, 175lbs




    Help me, help you! To get a great discount from TrueNutrition just type in MCS722 in the code box when you check out!


    New pursuit: competitive grappling, and enjoying my life

  • #2
    Excellent literature review sir!

    Lock...er, Mr. Sestok in your opinion, do you see endurance athletes who predominantly use slow twitch muscle fibers or strength/power athletes that require short burst of energy and predominantly use fast twitch muscle fibers deriving a great benefit from beta alanine supplementation?

    It seems to show promise in both populations, but I am curious as to who you think would benefit most with long term beta alanine supplementation.

    Additionally, is it possible for one to become immune to beta-alanine supplementation? Essentially, should it be cycled on and off and if so do you have any knowledge or a recommended protocol?
    Be true to yourself and fuel your body with nothing less the highest quality supplements. Only available at TrueNutrition.com Use discount code: KSP945 to save 5% on your order!

    Stickies...just read the damn stickies...

    2014 Xcalibur Cup Bantam Open - 1st
    2014 Tracey Greenwood Classic Bantam Open - 1st
    2015 Beat Cancer!

    Comment


    • #3
      Originally posted by mentalflex View Post
      Excellent literature review sir!

      Lock...er, Mr. Sestok in your opinion, do you see endurance athletes who predominantly use slow twitch muscle fibers or strength/power athletes that require short burst of energy and predominantly use fast twitch muscle fibers deriving a great benefit from beta alanine supplementation?

      It seems to show promise in both populations, but I am curious as to who you think would benefit most with long term beta alanine supplementation.

      Additionally, is it possible for one to become immune to beta-alanine supplementation? Essentially, should it be cycled on and off and if so do you have any knowledge or a recommended protocol?
      Good questions.

      From the data I have looked over, and the numerous studies I have reviewed, I believe that yes, both populations benefit greatly from BA. Actually, it seems the more advanced of an athlete you are, the greater the effect. I think this is due to already performing at a high level, elite athletes only need to elicit a very minimal positive effect for their performance to increase dramatically. From the studies I have seen that dealt with fiber dominance, it seems to effect fast twitch more as far as power output, but also helps buffer lactate so well that endurance athletes see a really great effect as well.

      No I do not believe it is possible to become immune. BA is found in many food sources as it is an amino acid. I do not believe the body can become de-sensitized to aminos. I am not positive on this, but that's my belief currently.

      My recommendations would be to assess ones tolerance to the skin parastesia. It seems some can handle more than others. At the point when an acute dose elicits this effect (tingling of the skin) I believe one has found their dosages. Take first thing in the morning every day, and both pre and post workout, preferably with creatine, as it seems the two have a massively synergistic effect . Personally, 10-15g per dose dose me plenty good. It's also dependent on bodyweight for sure.

      2012 EUP's Mission Submission II
      -1st SuperHeavy Gi
      2012 Hayastan Grappling Challenge New York
      -1st Heavyweight Gi
      2011 Slippery Rock Open Collegiate Championships, 4th-Open Heavyweight, 220lbs
      2008 NGA Pittsburgh Bodybuilding Championships, 2nd-Open Juniors, 175lbs




      Help me, help you! To get a great discount from TrueNutrition just type in MCS722 in the code box when you check out!


      New pursuit: competitive grappling, and enjoying my life

      Comment


      • #4
        Originally posted by Lock it Up View Post
        Good questions.

        From the data I have looked over, and the numerous studies I have reviewed, I believe that yes, both populations benefit greatly from BA. Actually, it seems the more advanced of an athlete you are, the greater the effect. I think this is due to already performing at a high level, elite athletes only need to elicit a very minimal positive effect for their performance to increase dramatically. From the studies I have seen that dealt with fiber dominance, it seems to effect fast twitch more as far as power output, but also helps buffer lactate so well that endurance athletes see a really great effect as well.

        No I do not believe it is possible to become immune. BA is found in many food sources as it is an amino acid. I do not believe the body can become de-sensitized to aminos. I am not positive on this, but that's my belief currently.

        My recommendations would be to assess ones tolerance to the skin parastesia. It seems some can handle more than others. At the point when an acute dose elicits this effect (tingling of the skin) I believe one has found their dosages. Take first thing in the morning every day, and both pre and post workout, preferably with creatine, as it seems the two have a massively synergistic effect . Personally, 10-15g per dose dose me plenty good. It's also dependent on bodyweight for sure.
        I totally concur with what you've written. Great read, by the way. I stopped taking creatine proabably 7 years ago, but then about 5 years ago started up again. The product I began using had Beta Alanine. More importantly it had the proper amount. I noticed a huge difference. Now I use a cocktail of BCAA's, Glutamine, Beta-Alanine, Creatine, and a Proven NO product and am extremely happy with the results. Infact, in my late 30's I'm noticing the best gains of my life. I also agree with your point about it effecting advanced athletes more. With all the costs involved and client's budgets in mind I tend to recommend things like this after they have gotten nutrition, and training under control.

        Once again great job.
        1994 Ohio Gran Prix 4th place
        2010 Kentucky State Championships 1st place
        2011 Northern Kentucky 4th place
        2012 Kentucky Grand Prix 1st place
        2014 Francois Classic 3rd place
        2015 Francois Classic 2nd Place

        Truenutrition.com
        Use Discount Code AMJ

        Comment


        • #5
          Originally posted by Lock it Up View Post
          Good questions.

          From the data I have looked over, and the numerous studies I have reviewed, I believe that yes, both populations benefit greatly from BA. Actually, it seems the more advanced of an athlete you are, the greater the effect. I think this is due to already performing at a high level, elite athletes only need to elicit a very minimal positive effect for their performance to increase dramatically. From the studies I have seen that dealt with fiber dominance, it seems to effect fast twitch more as far as power output, but also helps buffer lactate so well that endurance athletes see a really great effect as well.

          No I do not believe it is possible to become immune. BA is found in many food sources as it is an amino acid. I do not believe the body can become de-sensitized to aminos. I am not positive on this, but that's my belief currently.

          My recommendations would be to assess ones tolerance to the skin parastesia. It seems some can handle more than others. At the point when an acute dose elicits this effect (tingling of the skin) I believe one has found their dosages. Take first thing in the morning every day, and both pre and post workout, preferably with creatine, as it seems the two have a massively synergistic effect . Personally, 10-15g per dose dose me plenty good. It's also dependent on bodyweight for sure.
          First, Lock, this shit is golden brother (to me at least). I love reading stuff like this, I don't know, I am just a research oriented kind of person and like to think about how I can apply it, since it is highly relevant to all of us here.

          I find your first response pretty interesting. For lack of a better term, let's just call it the "newbie effect", when one takes some kind of new supplement, such as creatine, for the first time and they notice a more dramatic effect than an experienced athlete, this is not the case with BA. Pretty unique if you ask me...

          As for your last response, I am right along with you on that. When I was using Geraniamo! I was not not able to use a full dose because my skin would feel like it was on fire lol. Instead i used less of the Geraniamo! and added in extra creatine and noticed better results like that.

          Hey, if you are ever interested in testing out a hypothesis, let me know...

          Thanks again for sharing your info and responding.
          Be true to yourself and fuel your body with nothing less the highest quality supplements. Only available at TrueNutrition.com Use discount code: KSP945 to save 5% on your order!

          Stickies...just read the damn stickies...

          2014 Xcalibur Cup Bantam Open - 1st
          2014 Tracey Greenwood Classic Bantam Open - 1st
          2015 Beat Cancer!

          Comment


          • #6
            Originally posted by mentalflex View Post
            First, Lock, this shit is golden brother (to me at least). I love reading stuff like this, I don't know, I am just a research oriented kind of person and like to think about how I can apply it, since it is highly relevant to all of us here.

            I find your first response pretty interesting. For lack of a better term, let's just call it the "newbie effect", when one takes some kind of new supplement, such as creatine, for the first time and they notice a more dramatic effect than an experienced athlete, this is not the case with BA. Pretty unique if you ask me...

            As for your last response, I am right along with you on that. When I was using Geraniamo! I was not not able to use a full dose because my skin would feel like it was on fire lol. Instead i used less of the Geraniamo! and added in extra creatine and noticed better results like that.

            Hey, if you are ever interested in testing out a hypothesis, let me know...

            Thanks again for sharing your info and responding.
            No problem!

            Oh and that bolded part...don't write a check you can't cash...I am eeking Close and closer to starting my own study...

            ...once it's a approved, funded, and all that! LOL But when I need to start doing my pilot study, if I can use you, I will!

            2012 EUP's Mission Submission II
            -1st SuperHeavy Gi
            2012 Hayastan Grappling Challenge New York
            -1st Heavyweight Gi
            2011 Slippery Rock Open Collegiate Championships, 4th-Open Heavyweight, 220lbs
            2008 NGA Pittsburgh Bodybuilding Championships, 2nd-Open Juniors, 175lbs




            Help me, help you! To get a great discount from TrueNutrition just type in MCS722 in the code box when you check out!


            New pursuit: competitive grappling, and enjoying my life

            Comment


            • #7
              Originally posted by Doberman View Post
              I totally concur with what you've written. Great read, by the way. I stopped taking creatine proabably 7 years ago, but then about 5 years ago started up again. The product I began using had Beta Alanine. More importantly it had the proper amount. I noticed a huge difference. Now I use a cocktail of BCAA's, Glutamine, Beta-Alanine, Creatine, and a Proven NO product and am extremely happy with the results. Infact, in my late 30's I'm noticing the best gains of my life. I also agree with your point about it effecting advanced athletes more. With all the costs involved and client's budgets in mind I tend to recommend things like this after they have gotten nutrition, and training under control.

              Once again great job.
              Thanks Dobe! Love to hear that coming from you!

              And yes, mainly why advanced trainees see more of an effect is because...well, lets take this example (and this isn't nessasarily for you, just anyone interested. I know you have a grasp of this):

              Trainee A- A D1, collegiate level track and field athlete. A middle distance runner. To shave even a half second of a time is a big task for someone already performing at such a high level. Now, they use BA and with that added lactate buffering ability, maybe they are generating enough power at the kick of the race to sprint at 100% where they were only able to go 90% before BA use.

              Trainee B- Out of shape, joe blow. Wants to be able to run longer distances. Let's say he's training for a half-marathon. Now, he is gonna see CRAZY cardiovascular increases if he uses an approach that generates high intensity for distance ( 70-100% V02 max lets say). So much progress will be made over the span of a few months that adding in BA from the get go will ultimately do nothing...those gains were gonna come anyway.

              Further, IMO the supplements that are not essential IMO (Essential being Multi vitamins, protein sups, BCAA's, and that's about it, maybe fish oil) don't need to be utilized by someone who hasn't really started tapping out their potential. It's the same argument with AAS. A raw trainee can make huge leaps and bounds by training hard and eating a sound diet, geared to their goals. Nothing extra is needed IMO. Now, when you start getting to the point of "Man I have been hitting it hard, eating right, for so long now and I haven't made progress in months!" maybe it's time to start looking for an aid or two. Just my own opinion, as I was someone who started training young and didn't touch anything (not even whey) until I was about 2 years into seriously training (which for me, started from the get go). Just trained heavy as I could, and ate everything in front of me, with a focus on eating meat, potatoes, and drinking milk!

              I'll say it again: THE HUMAN BODY IS AN AWESOME, AWESOME MACHINE. It will respond the way you want it to if you are CONSISTENT, and constantly PUSHING your body (by training hard) and FORCING ADAPTATION TO OCCUR FOR, well...survival, as the body sees it. All it knows is "Shit he's really pounding us. Whatever is going on out there we need to start getting bigger/faster/stronger." It's Darwinism at it's most basic. The strong will survive.

              2012 EUP's Mission Submission II
              -1st SuperHeavy Gi
              2012 Hayastan Grappling Challenge New York
              -1st Heavyweight Gi
              2011 Slippery Rock Open Collegiate Championships, 4th-Open Heavyweight, 220lbs
              2008 NGA Pittsburgh Bodybuilding Championships, 2nd-Open Juniors, 175lbs




              Help me, help you! To get a great discount from TrueNutrition just type in MCS722 in the code box when you check out!


              New pursuit: competitive grappling, and enjoying my life

              Comment


              • #8
                Great read and thanks for sharing.

                Comment


                • #9
                  Originally posted by Lock it Up View Post
                  No problem!

                  Oh and that bolded part...don't write a check you can't cash...I am eeking Close and closer to starting my own study...

                  ...once it's a approved, funded, and all that! LOL But when I need to start doing my pilot study, if I can use you, I will!
                  Lock, as long as I'm not prepping and I get approval from my boss man (Scott) lol, It'll be money in the bank!

                  I honestly see you making a pretty big splash in this industry...whether it is sooner or later, with your intelligence and work ethic it is one of those things that if you want it to happen it will.
                  Be true to yourself and fuel your body with nothing less the highest quality supplements. Only available at TrueNutrition.com Use discount code: KSP945 to save 5% on your order!

                  Stickies...just read the damn stickies...

                  2014 Xcalibur Cup Bantam Open - 1st
                  2014 Tracey Greenwood Classic Bantam Open - 1st
                  2015 Beat Cancer!

                  Comment


                  • #10
                    Originally posted by Sparkyboy View Post
                    Great read and thanks for sharing.
                    Originally posted by mentalflex View Post
                    Lock, as long as I'm not prepping and I get approval from my boss man (Scott) lol, It'll be money in the bank!

                    I honestly see you making a pretty big splash in this industry...whether it is sooner or later, with your intelligence and work ethic it is one of those things that if you want it to happen it will.
                    Well thanks mental. Very flattered. But I am not putting ALL my eggs into this "basket", but ya that would be the dream.

                    2012 EUP's Mission Submission II
                    -1st SuperHeavy Gi
                    2012 Hayastan Grappling Challenge New York
                    -1st Heavyweight Gi
                    2011 Slippery Rock Open Collegiate Championships, 4th-Open Heavyweight, 220lbs
                    2008 NGA Pittsburgh Bodybuilding Championships, 2nd-Open Juniors, 175lbs




                    Help me, help you! To get a great discount from TrueNutrition just type in MCS722 in the code box when you check out!


                    New pursuit: competitive grappling, and enjoying my life

                    Comment


                    • #11
                      Nice read Mark. I remember writing these, very time consuming.

                      Question-What would you say is the overall difference between Creatine Supplementation and Beta-Alanine Supplementation/Carnosine response in the body? (I know the ATP system and Lactate system are somewhat different, but I think you know what I'm getting at).

                      Additionally, do you know what is actually going on in the body that gives that tingly side effect? Like...what is doing that in the skin?

                      Also, am I understanding the research correctly that Beta-Alanine seems to have an immediate effect on workouts, (Almost like a pre-workout) and not just a prolonged effect, like Creatine?
                      TRUE PROTEIN Discount Code- CSH730

                      Comment


                      • #12
                        Originally posted by darkguitars2000 View Post
                        Nice read Mark. I remember writing these, very time consuming.

                        Question-What would you say is the overall difference between Creatine Supplementation and Beta-Alanine Supplementation/Carnosine response in the body? (I know the ATP system and Lactate system are somewhat different, but I think you know what I'm getting at).

                        Additionally, do you know what is actually going on in the body that gives that tingly side effect? Like...what is doing that in the skin?

                        Also, am I understanding the research correctly that Beta-Alanine seems to have an immediate effect on workouts, (Almost like a pre-workout) and not just a prolonged effect, like Creatine?

                        The difference between BA and CR, is actual very big. Creatine helps the ATP-PCr system by providing extra creatine phosphate (from creatine) in order to help drive the production of new ATP to be used as energy. You only have so much stored ATP to go around and it depletes VERY VERY QUICKLY. Were talking the immediate storage depletes roughly in less than a minute, depending on the level of training of the person. So, when that is all gone, all the metabolic pathways (glycolisis, Electron transport chain etc) work to provide the body with more ATP by turning ADP into ATP by addition of another phosphate. ATP is the energy currency of the body, and creatine acts to build this reserve, essentially without getting to detailed.

                        BA on the other hand does not provide a means to increase energy stores or production. It simply allows more work to be done and more lactic acid to accumulate in the tissues without an adverse effect on bodily movement (I.E. You can train hard longer). This can be seen in someone who can bust out 10 reps on a movement with X weight without beta alanine, and then 15 or so with BA. It simply prolongs that "burning" feeling. This is also another reason why high level trainees benefit most from it, because it is likely after years of training (and good genetics) that athlete can endure more lactate buildup already, due to be accustomed to it, and pushing through that mentally (and physiologically, as one's lactate threshold can certainly be improved with training). Add in BA and this individual can go on even longer without succumbing to the "BURN".

                        As far as why the tingling sensation happens, well I don't exactly know but I have a theory: because of the system which produces carnosine, which utilizes enzymes to break the bonds of the dipeptide into it's constituents (BA and Histidine), and histidine is converted into histamine (an inflammatory enzyme, what is produced when you bang your head on a wall) it is this histamine which causes very micro swelling which causes the pain felt at the skin. This is my educated guess, as I haven't looked very far into it. But it is probably similar to why Niacin causes flushing...they both work on pathways that deal with histamine.

                        It does show some immediate effects. However, total saturation of blood plasma by BA takes much longer than one dose. Talking days-weeks here. Much like creatine. However, I believe that creatine also shows immediate effects, as it is simply providing the body more means of producing atp...you might not feel lit or notice it the first time but something IS going on there immediately.

                        2012 EUP's Mission Submission II
                        -1st SuperHeavy Gi
                        2012 Hayastan Grappling Challenge New York
                        -1st Heavyweight Gi
                        2011 Slippery Rock Open Collegiate Championships, 4th-Open Heavyweight, 220lbs
                        2008 NGA Pittsburgh Bodybuilding Championships, 2nd-Open Juniors, 175lbs




                        Help me, help you! To get a great discount from TrueNutrition just type in MCS722 in the code box when you check out!


                        New pursuit: competitive grappling, and enjoying my life

                        Comment


                        • #13
                          (I've never taken it, hence the dumb questions)-

                          As you stated above, what's interesting to think about is someone who (like you or I, or other people on the site) who've taken sets to puking, falling, bleeding, whatever, are like ON Beta-Alanine.

                          Seemingly it could very well speed up the process for many of us that using progressive based training. (My current goal is to get 315 on squat for 20. If I could get that in 4 weeks instead of 10 weeks, just think how much MORE my legs will grow too!) Fun to think about.
                          TRUE PROTEIN Discount Code- CSH730

                          Comment


                          • #14
                            Yep, my personal opinion is that BA is in the category of supplelements that just flat out works, and is actually worth while to take year round. Not many supplements fall into that list, IMO.

                            2012 EUP's Mission Submission II
                            -1st SuperHeavy Gi
                            2012 Hayastan Grappling Challenge New York
                            -1st Heavyweight Gi
                            2011 Slippery Rock Open Collegiate Championships, 4th-Open Heavyweight, 220lbs
                            2008 NGA Pittsburgh Bodybuilding Championships, 2nd-Open Juniors, 175lbs




                            Help me, help you! To get a great discount from TrueNutrition just type in MCS722 in the code box when you check out!


                            New pursuit: competitive grappling, and enjoying my life

                            Comment


                            • #15
                              Well with Shelby's recommendation, I've ordered a big quantity of it for the spring, to take in conjunction with- MG's Test Booster, Creatine, BCAA's and Powdered Muscle.

                              Excited to see what this body is capable of. Thanks for read and discussion.
                              TRUE PROTEIN Discount Code- CSH730

                              Comment

                              Working...
                              X